Edgar de Chazal

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French version is followed by an English translation by Christopher de Chazal
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Special thanks to Tristan de Chazal for the work in copying the text of Edgar

0b3dec72b474f0bcb1c438c08b14a6cdEDGAR DE CHAZAL(1867-1935)

MON JOURNAL

Samedi 16 décembre 1893.

Je suis parti de Maurice hier avec René pour un petit voyage d’agrément dans l’Inde où je compte voir un peu de pays. C’est mon premier voyage de conséquence en mer. J’ai pris mon billet de retour pour Colombo, d’où je dois partir pour Madras, et de là je ferais mon itinéraire.

Nous sommes partis du port à 6 heures, après le départ du train qui conduisait mon père, ma mère, André, Alix et Marc au Vacoa, la mer était un peu houleuse, nous étions un peu brouillés de la séparation. On s’est mis tout de suite à table, et après dîner nous nous sommes tenus sur le pont avec Aga Hassen avec lequel nous nous sommes liés, à regarder les feux du phare & de la ville, nous avons causé jusqu’à 10 heures, Aga Hassen est un homme très aimable, nous n’aurions pas eu beaucoup d’amusement sans lui. Les officiers du bord ne sont pas très communicatifs, ils nous prennent pour des étrangers et ne causent guère avec nous. On déjeune à bord à 9 heures, tiffin à 1 heure et dîner à 6 heures, thé, etc., la nourriture n’est pas ce qu’il y a de mieux quoique le service soit bien fait par des indiens en cabaye avec des toques bleue et blanc. Le capitaine est un être indécrottable, un brouillon et un voyou, avec lequel nous n’aurons pas beaucoup de relations.

Mercredi 3 janvier 1893.

Je reprend mon journal aujourd’hui, au Buckingham Hotel à Madras. Tout le voyage, depuis la dernière date, je l’ai écrit à mon père, aux différents endroits où nous avons touché. Ce sera un peu décousu, mais je prends maintenant la résolution d’écrire au fur et à mesure et j’espère bien tenir à ma promesse.

Le temps était splendide tout le temps, depuis Maurice jusqu’à Colombo ; Nous n’avons eu qu’un peu de pluie avant notre arrivée à ce dernier port. Nous avons eu comme compagnon de voyage, Mr. Dangerfield qui est un commis voyageur qui va placer des toles galvanisées dans l’Inde. Il est excessivement plein de lui-même et pour se faire valoir, il dit qu’il avait une fois l’intention de se faire nommer membre du Parlement. Aga Hassen, avec lequel nous avons été très liés à notre départ de Maurice, s’est un peu refroidi, mais nous nous sommes quittés en très bons termes. Il a été question d’un voyage avec lui à Bagdad, mais j’ai depuis à peu près renoncé à ce voyage. Nous nous reverrons à Bombay. Le Warora est un bon bateau pour voyager, le pont est au milieu du bateau et on ne sent pas le roulis. Nous n’avons rencontré absolument rien jusqu’aux îles Maldives que nous avons passées de très près.

La cuisine du bord était assez monotone, toujours des mutton chops

[1], des pommes de terre, du toast et du thé. Le service et la cuisine se font par les Indiens qui viennent du sud de Bombay. Ils ne sont pas aussi bons que les Madras qui sont meilleurs cuisiniers et qui servent très bien. Les domestiques partout où j’ai été jusqu’ici ont une robe blanche et une toque qui diffère dans les différents endroits ; sur le B.I. la toque était blanche avec une raie bleue et une ceinture blanche et bleue tressée autour des reins, sur les bateaux français ils ont une bande tricolore à travers la toque. Tous les officiers sont Ecossais ainsi que les mécaniciens, l’équipage est indienne, ils sont beaucoup plus nombreux que les bateaux qui ont un équipage européen. Nous n’avions pas grand chose à faire toute la journée, nous avons lu les journeaux de France, la revue Encyclopédique et la Revue littéraire ; après dîner on se mettait en « Junjamas » et nous causions un peu sur le pont, dans la journée on faisait quelquefois une partie de « quoits » avec deux barriques et huit ronds de corde recouverte de canevas. Il n’y avait que des Indiens en seconde, Vyapooree, le marchand de gonis[2] et Michael Meek ; il paraît que le « Warora » devait aller à Calcutta, mais comme ils ont eu une forte cargaison de sucre pour Bombay ils ont changé de destination. Le fil télégraphique venant d’être installé à Maurice, il y a eu beaucoup de ventes de sucre avant

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mon départ et le bateau avait sa pleine cargaison. J’ai vu à bord qu’il fallait se méfier des serviteurs Indiens ;

le domestique d’Abbass est entrée dans sa chambre pendant qu’il dormait, a pris sa clef sous son oreiller et était en train de le dévaliser quand il s’est réveillé.

Nous avons fait onze jours de traversée de Maurice à Colombo, où nous sommes arrivés le 26 Décre à 6 heures du soir.

Colombo est une jolie ville, les rues sont éclairées au Gaz et sont assez grandes. On met de la terre rouge par dessus le macadam et l’on tasse cela avec un gros rouleau. Le phare est au milieu de la ville et à trois rayons. On le voit à peu près à 15 milles. Les rues sont comme à Madras plantées d’arbres. Tous les bâtiments sont en briques recouvertes de mastic et blanchies à la chaux, avec des

portes en voûtes. Le premier bâtiment que l’on voit en débarquant est l’Orient Hotel qui est à trois étages. C’est un des plus grands bâtiments de la ville, on le voit de loin, nous y avons été en débarquant et nous avons laissé là nos valises à notre départ pour Kandi. Les campagnes privées sont en dehors de la ville et assez loin, du côté de Slave Island. On voyage là principalement dans le « pousse-pousse », petite voiture à deux roues avec un soufflet, très commodes et hissées par des natifs ; ils vont avec ces voitures à de grandes distances. Les chambres du Orient Hotel sont très commodes, René et moi étions au second étage, nos chambres donnaient dans la rue, chacun avait son petit balcon séparé par un treillage, et avec la voile en « voune »[3], il faisait malgré cela assez chaud, je suppose que c’est parce que nous avions été faire une promenade assez longue après dîner ; il ne faut marcher que de très grand matin dans l’Inde ; cet hôtel est très cher, ils ont un tarif et vous compte tant pour chaque repas, pour la chambre, thé, bain, etc., et cela fait une somme assez ronde. Dans ces hôtels on s’arrange beaucoup mieux au mois ; nous avons eu à payer douze roupies chacun pour les 24 heures, et ils ne prennent pas plus de Rs. 5 par jour quand on s’arrange au mois.

La salle à manger est haute et bien aérée avec une galerie à l’étage entre les voûtes, de grands pankas au dessus des tables. Il y a une grande varangue[4] tout le long du côté de la mer, tout le monde est allongé sur des fauteuils à bras et il y a beaucoup de verdure contre les colonnes. Après dîner nous avons vu un Mr. Painten que nous avions rencontré au tennis à la maison, c’est un blond un peu boiteux, il fait là du commerce. La rue principale est très longue, elle part de la jetée ou du bureau du Port, passe devant l’Orient, le Bristol Hotel, les Casernes, et tourne aux rails du chemin de fer, on passe devant les Casernes et le « Club » de Colombo pour aller au « Galle Face » Hotel, ce dernier hôtel est contre le rivage ; en face il y a une longue promenade, en maçonnerie, avec des bancs, et la route sépare cette promenade du Club, devant lequel il y a une très belle pelouse, tout cela est très beau le soir, au clair de lune. C’est au Galle Face Hotel que nous avons débarqué en revenant de Kandi, nous y étions très bien et n’avons payé que Rs. 6 par personne, mais cela non sans nous disputer avec l’Hotelier.

Le port de Colombo est formé par une longue jetée qui se termine par un ovale sur lequel il y a un phare. Les plus grands vapeurs y ont accès, ce port semble le rendez-vous des nombreuses lignes de messageries qui se font la concurrence pour le commerce de l’Inde, ils font leur charbon là à beaucoup meilleur marché qu’ailleurs et transbordent leurs marchandises. Quand nous avons débarqués, la mer était assez houleuse, car le vent soufflait à l’entrée du port. C’est drôle de voir les bateaux des natifs, ils l’appellent « catamaran » ou quelque chose de ce genre. Ils se composent d’un tronc d’arbre qui est relié à un autre plus petit par deux tringles, ils ont une petite caisse au milieu pour s’asseoir. Ces bateaux tiennent la plus haute mer et ne peuvent pas chavirer. A notre arrivée un bateau autrichien avec beaucoup de passagers partait pour Calcutta. Si nous étions arrivés plus tôt, nous aurions pu nous rembarquer pour Madras où René était assez pressé d’arriver à cause de son travail.

Ayant appris que l’Eridan des Mess : Marmes [5] partait dans quelques jours, nous avons été à bord pour nous en assurer et c’est sur ce bateau que nous avons fait la traversée jusqu’ici.

Les Singalais sont une race d’hommes assez gracieux dans leurs manières, très efféminés, qui portent une grande bande de toile à carreaux ou blanche autour des reins, et qui leur retombent aux chevilles. Ils attachent leurs cheveux derrière la tête et se coiffent d’un peigne rond. La plupart ont un paletot à l’Européen fermé en haut, beaucoup n’ont rien sur le dos. Ils se rasent pour la plupart le menton et les lèvres. Il y en a qui portent en guise de paletot un châle de femme, à carreaux, de sorte qu’en les voyant de derrière on les prendrait pour des femmes. Presque tous ceux qui ont reçu de l’éducation deviennent chrétiens.

Le lendemain de notre arrivée à Colombo nous avons été par le train à Kandi qui est à 4 heures de Colombo. On nous a donné au terminus des cartes d’excursion à moitié prix à cause des fêtes de Noël. On a congé là, à Pondichéry et à Madras depuis le 24 jusqu’au 2 Janvier ; les wagons sont longs avec des demi partitions, nous avons voyagé en 2nde avec des natifs civilisés, avec leur robe pardessus le pantalon. Tout le pays pendant près de 3 heures est tout à fait plat, puis on monte graduellement jusqu’à 1400 pieds. On ne voit tout le temps que des plantations de riz en longues bandes très vertes séparées par des « jungles » avec des cocotiers. Sur la montagne on voit ces plantations tout à fait au fond de la vallée, quelques fois en demi-cercles en forme de plats-de-bande ; le thé ne vient que dans les hauteurs, nous n’en avons guère vu avant le plateau de Kandi ; nous sommes arrivés à Kandi à la nuit et avons été au Florence Hotel tenu par un Mr. Campbell, tout à fait au bord du lac, sur la colline. Cet hôtel est excessivement bien tenu, il y a une marquise attenant à la varangue, supportée par de grosses colonnes, semblable à l’Hotel Buckingham où nous sommes à Madras ; les murs sont peints à la chaux, les fenêtres vernis et tout est propre et reluisant, la salle à manger est séparée du salon par une grande voûte. Nous avions une grande fenêtre avec une voile à ressort qui donnait sur la montagne. Nous avons rencontré là à dîner un monsieur qui avait fait le voyage des villes de l’Inde et qui avait pris des photographies là où il avait passé, il a causé longuement avec René sur le temps qu’on prenait pour photographier – par portion de seconde – il a pris des vues du jardin avec nous. Le lendemain, de bonne heure, nous avons été au jardin des plantes ; nous avons traversé un pays charmant où la végétation était superbe, tout le long de la route il y avait des quantités de cases des natifs couverte en tuile avec la varangue couverte devant ; la population de Ceylan[6] est bhudiste, il y a aussi beaucoup de catholiques, nous avons rencontré là de jeunes séminaristes singalais, avec la robe noire et une ceinture rouge. La religion catholique va beaucoup mieux aux Indiens, les cérémonies frappent plus leur esprit. Dans l’Inde les missionnaires portent plutôt la robe blanche avec un tricorne noir, ils sont établis au Ceylan depuis de nombreuses années et font beaucoup de prosélytes.

Jardin de Kandi. Ce jardin est très joli, il n’est pas aussi soigné que celui des Pamplemousses à Maurice qui contient une flore beaucoup plus complète et qui est plus coquet, mais là la végétation est plus forte, les arbres sont magnifiques et les pelouses spacieuses ; j’ai vu de très beaux spécimens de fougères, de caladiums, d’anturiums, etc. La fougeraie est sous une rotonde recouverte d’une toiture faite en cordes de cocos pour amortir les fortes pluies. A l’entrée les arbres sont recouverts de lianes en fleurs comme l’ipoméha, un peu plus loin on voit des muscadiers superbes, et une touffe de palmites-bambou, que l’on appèle ici « Mauritius-palm », nous avons photographié deux magnifiques India-rubber avec de grandes racines en forme de lame qui descendait jusqu’au chemin. Les touffes de bambou sont superbes, il y en a de distance en distance, ils sont isolés et c’est beau de voir ces grands panaches de feuilles qui montent vers le ciel. Le palmier de Singapore est un très bel arbre qui donne de grandes feuilles comme le latanier et qui meurt après avoir fleuri, une autre espèce de ce palmier ou panadus porte ses feuilles en forme de tire-bouchon, c’est à dire que les feuilles sont serrées les unes contre les autres contre le tronc et l’enlace. Il y a un joli lac ou plutôt la rivière est très large d’un côté et il y a contre une belle pelouse entourée d’arbres ; la rivière fait 3 côtés du jardin qui est de 150 arpents. Les allées sont recouvertes d’un gravier fin et blanc, espèce de marbre ou granit. En revenant, à droite de ce jardin, nous avons vu un arbuste recouvert de jolies fleurs roses tachées de jaune au bout et ressemblait à une fleur d’orchidée.

Nous avons aussi visité, en quittant le Peredenya Gardens, une usine à thé.

Kandi – Ceylan

Voici comment on s’y prend pour fabriquer cette boisson. Les femmes cueillent les feuilles et les mettent dans de grands paniers ; on met ces feuilles à sécher dans une chambre à l’étage en les éparpillant sur des tiroirs superposés faits en gonis, sur un plan incliné, et séparés par blocs. La chambre est close, et une roue en tôle est installé au bout de la chambre pour établir un courant d’air. Après 24 heures les feuilles sont versées à travers le plancher dans un pulvérisateur où elles sont roulées et bien écrasées, de là elles passent dans une boite à air chaud, puis dans une seconde boite à air plus chaud, et le thé est fait. Pour séparer les petites feuilles ou le meilleur thé des grosses feuilles, on le passe dans un tamis à vapeur ou vaneuse et il se sépare en quatre qualités.

De Colombo : Nous sommes partis de Colombo Vendredi le 29 Decre. à midi à bord de l’Eridan, un bateau des Mess. Maritimes. Nous avons voyagé avec Mr. George Russel, un haut fonctionnaire du Gouvernement qui venait à Madras, plusieurs Américains et un turc. Le médecin est un petit bossu très aimable ; le second était en charge du bateau, le capitaine étant malade à Colombo. La cuisine était excellente, et le changement de nourriture très agréable. Nous avons débarqué à Pondichéry dimanche soir sous une pluie battante, et nous avons été à l’hôtel de Paris, tenu par un natif qui nous a donné un dîner épouventable ; nous avons rencontré là des Ecossais, qui ont veillé pour voir l’année nouvelle s’ouvrir, à minuit ils ont fait un vacarme en chantant le « Auld Lang Sign ». Le matin nous avons été faire un tour de la ville. Tous les principaux bâtiments sont sur la côte, qui est presque droite, il n’y a pas de rade du tout, il y a une jetée, les bateaux sont montés par des natifs presque nus, absolument des sauvages, ils ont des rames faites avec une gaule au bout de laquelle est attachée une planche ronde.

Lundi 1er janvier 1894.

L’aspect de Madras est assez triste quand on entre dans le port. Les bâtiments sont en briques rouges, granit et pierres, tout cela est rouge de poussière et a l’air triste. Le plus beau bâtiment est le High Court of Justice qui contient beaucoup de dômes et des toits pointus. En débarquant nous avons été à l’Empress Hotel tenu par un natif, le lendemain

Mardi 2 Janvier nous avons été au Buckingham Hotel Parapet. Nous avons vu Moubray qui venait d’arriver chez Binny & Co par les Messageries.

3, 4, 5, 6, 7 & 8 Janvier / 94.

Nous sommes restés à Madras, presque tous les matins nous allions rencontrer Moubray et nous faisions un tour de promenade avec lui. Le soir on allait au Marina où tous les gens biens du quartier se donnaient rendez-vous. La vie est assez coûteuse à Madras, on ne peut pas sortir à pied et les voitures coûtent cher, et l’hôtel de Rs. 120 à Rs. 150, avec Rs 300 par mois on peut tout juste se débrouiller. J’ai quitté Madras lundi le 8 janvier par le train de 6 H p.m. pour Hyderabad, après avoir fait mes adieux à René. Il n’y a rien d’intéressant à voir comme paysage, de Madras à Hyderabad ; toute la partie près de la ville est pas mal marécageuse et on plante du riz, le lendemain matin je me suis trouvé dans un pays tout à fait différent, le sol est sablonneux, et le pays est très plat, on ne voit à peine de ci de là quelques collines dénudées, et on voit des plantations de blé indien, grain, graines de lin, etc., à perte de vue.

Le chemin de fer est très commode, il a fait frais et j’ai parfaitement dormi, on a dîné à Arkonam, déjeuné à Guntakal Junction, tiffiné à Nadi et je suis arrivé dans la soirée du 9 à Secunderabad, où j’ai été au Decaen Hotel, après avoir visité la tour de Golconde, le tombeau des rois, le Faluknama, château du 1er ministre fils de Sir Salar Jung Bahadoor sur la colline, la ville de Haiderabad, le lac, la résidence où est Mr. Powden. Je suis reparti le 4 janvier à 10 heures du soir pour Bombay.

12 Janvier.

Arrivé à Poona le matin à 1 h 10, je suis installé à Napier Hotel d’où je partirai ce soir à 10 heures pour Bombay. J’ai été ce matin à la mosquée de Parbati sur la montagne, d’où je suis rentré à midi pour déjeuner, il faisait une chaleur atroce et j’ai beaucoup apprécié mon bain. Je vais maintenant voir un peu la ville.

Bombay, 17 Janvier 1894.

Route à suivre de Bombay pour Calcutta via Ahmedabad, Aboo Road, Jeypore, Rewari, Ferozepore, Lahore, Umritgar, Saharanpur, Delhi, Agra, Cawnpore, Lucknow, Bénarès, Calcutta. B.B & C.I. Ry Colaba Station 9.30 p.m. Amedabad 9.50 a.m. Abu Road 3.58 p.m. Jeypore 5.15 a.m. dep. Rewari 12.15 p.m. N.W. Ry. Ferozepore 4 p.m. Reawing Jn. 5.42 p.m. Lahore 7.10 p.m. dep. 3.35 p.m. Amritsar 4.54 p.m. Saharanpur 2.37 a.m. Delhi 7.50 a.m. Delhi d. 11.25 a.m. Agra 12.5. p.m. B.B. & C.I. Ry Agra 2.04 p.m. Cawnpore 6.31 Cawnpore 7.20 p.m. Lucknow 9.20 p.m. Lucknow 4.20 arrive Cawnpore 6.20 Cawnpore 6.45 arrivée Allahabad 11.00 et Bénarès 12.38 p.m. Bénarès 1.16 p.m. Mogul Sarsi 1.42 p.m. dep. 2.9 p.m. Hawarah (Calcutta) 5.45 a.m.

Ahmedabad Vendredi le 19 Janvier 1894.

Je suis parti de Bombay hier après un séjour de 5 jours dans cette ville et suis arrivé ici ce matin à 9 heures avec Messrs. Durfort et de Bagneux. Ahmedabad est une ancienne ville tout à fait orientale et qui a eu ses jours de splendeur. Il est maintenant un peu abandonné quoique la population soit toujours assez dense. La ville est entouré de mur et à peu près deux milles carrés, vue de Juma Musjid Mosque elle présente une grande surface, mais a l’air un peu sombre à cause des couvertures en tuile. Elle a été construite par Ahmed le Sultan il y a environ 500 ans et la tombe de ce puissant monarque est en marbre sculpté et se trouve dans une construction dans la ville même, tout à côté ont été enterrés son fils et son petit-fils ; ces mausolées sont en marbre très bien sculpté et sont recouverts de grands draps brodés d’or. Nous avons été tout de suite après déjeuner voir les temples des Jains à l’entrée de la ville. Ce temple est composé d’un long bâtiment sur les 4 faces, au dessus duquel sont une certaine quantité de petits dômes finissant en pointe, ces bâtiment qui se suivent et forment un carré parfait contiennent des compartiments fermés par une porte grillée à travers laquelle on voir un Boudah en marbre assis les pieds croisés ainsi que les mains, il a les yeux très brillants et une bouche peinte en rose, à chaque côté il y a un dieu semblable ; tout le long il y a une enfilade de colonnes qui supportent une varangue formée par des voûtes et au haut des colonnes il y a des « dancing girls », tout le long de ce corridor les Jains viennent faire le salam et jettent quelques grains de riz pour le prêtre, tout l’emplacement est pavé, en marbre très bien travaillé et incrusté. A l’entrée du temple un homme nous a fait changer nos chaussures pour des souliers en laine ; le prêtre passe son temps à orner de fleurs les idoles et répandre du sandal partout. Les fenêtres sont toutes faites avec de la pierre travaillée à jour et représentant des dessins différents. Les Jains sont les gens qui respectent les animaux, on voit là et partout dans le pays beaucoup d’oiseaux de toute espèce, des écureuils qui grimpent sur les murs et suivent la rangée d’autels où les gens ont passé, pour recueillir les quelques grains de riz qu’ils ont laissé tomber ; les singes d’un gris bleu avec d’énormes queues et la face noire viennent tout à fait devant le temple, et on peut leur donner des bringelles[7] coupées en morceau qu’ils viennent vous prendre dans la main quand on les appelle de la voix. Ils sont généralement par bande de 12 ou 15, tous des femelles, quelques unes ont leurs petits qui sont très gentils, on n’a qu’à leur donner leur morceau et ils s’assoient tous là à côté de la voiture ; le mâle est beaucoup plus gros est méchant. De là nous avons été voir plusieurs petites mosquées mahométanes où on nous a laisser entrer sans tirer les souliers. Ces mosquées sont toutes en pierres parfaitement travaillées et qui ont coûté de l’argent, mais c’est sale et pas entretenus. Ils ont à côté du tabernacle une niche en pierre qui contient de l’huile brûlée où les fidèles viennent tremper leur doigt et s’en frotter aux yeux en forme de serment.

La ville est très sale et les maisons plus ou moins en ruine, les routes tortueuses et étroites, mais ce qui distingue l’endroit c’est leur goût pour la sculpture ; les devantures de toutes les maisons sont très bien sculptées, ils ne connaissent guère la peinture, il y a quelques maisons seulement qui sont peintes et alors sans huile et avec des couleurs voyantes comme à Haiderabad. Dans l’après-midi nous sommes allés faire une promenade à un tank[8] qui se trouve à quelques miles en dehors de la ville. Il y a au milieu un îlot qui est attaché à la terre par une allée, et sur l’îlot il y a un joli jardin et un kiosque au milieu et sur le kiosque une terrasse où l’on prend le frais dans l’après-midi, il y a des bougainvilleas en fleurs taillés en boules qui sont d’un très joli aspect. Nous avons vu au dessus de l’eau la tête d’un caïman, il paraît que les Jains ont obtenus comme concession du Gouvernement qu’ils ne tuent pas ces bêtes qu’ils respectent et on a été obligé de mettre un barrage tout le long de la promenade pour les empêcher de circuler. La tombe de Allam Shah, un ancien prêtre du temps de Mahomet, se trouve un peu plus loin, ses sept fils sont enterrés à côté ainsi que son frère, les Mahométans viennent y faire leur prière. Le mausolée est en marbre et le bâtiment est entouré de pierre travaillées à jour. Le bazar est au milieu de la ville sur la place, on y voit des quantités de gens qui vendaient des linges de toutes les couleurs, le pays est pauvre et les gens sales. Nous avons été assez mal logés à la gare dans une chambre sale et n’avons presque pas dormi.

20 Janvier.

Partis d’Ahmedabad à 10 heures du matin, nous avons dîné à Nana, une gentille petite gare avec un jardin et des lianes le long des colonnes, nous sommes arrivés ici à Jaypoore à 5 heures le 21 après 18 heures de voyage. Les wagons de 1ère classe sont plus petits et à trois couchettes avec une platte forme qui donne sur les rails, ces wagons sont très commode le soir, on y installe une banquette et on fume en blaguant au clair de lune. Le paysage est assez joli jusqu’aux environs d’Aboo Road où l’on arrive vers quatre heures de l’après-midi. A partir de cet endroit tout est sec et désert, il n’y a que de la pierre blanche et des banyans desséchés, seulement on passe entre deux rangées de collines et l’aspect est joli au clair de lune ; nous avons rencontré beaucoup de cigognes et sarcelles dans les plantations de riz, et pas mal de singes, aussi des paons. Notre intention était de nous arrêter à Aboo Road et prendre des poneys pour Mont Aboo, mais nous avons vu le pays si désolé que nous avons préféré nous réserver pour les autres endroits. Toutes les gares de chemin de fer sont bâties dans cet endroit en dômes, blanchis à la chaux. La ligne de « Bombay & Baroda & Rajpootana State Railway » qui part de Ahmedabad est beaucoup plus petite que les autres lignes.

Jaypoore 21.1.94.

Nous avons débarqué ce matin à 5 ½ h. au Dak Bungalow, un hôtel entretenu par le Gouvernement pour les voyageurs. C’est bien propre et on y est bien traité, l’hôtel est plein de voyageurs. Nous sommes partis ce matin en voiture pour assister à la messe, il faisait très frais, un climat délicieux. Il y avait à l’église qu’une dizaine de natifs à genoux sur des nattes et une famille anglaise, mes compagnons ont fait leurs dévotions et moi j’ai regardé comme un curieux le prêtre bénir son vin et faire ses génuflexions. Le prêtre est un type à grande barbe qui finissait son sermon en Hindoustani quand nous sommes arrivés. De là nous avons été voir le jardin public, dans lequel est le musée. La porte d’entrée est bien faite et dorée, les allées sont sablées et il y a de jolies pelouses bordées de rosiers et disposées en différents dessins. Nous avons vu en 1er les antilopes, daims et cerfs de tous genres et de toutes tailles, provenant des différents endroits de l’Inde, le daim piguelé de taches, le cerf noir avec abdomen blanc, le cerf porc ; puis nous avons passé à un bassin fermé contenant un amas de pierres sur lesquelles il y avait des …… ( ?) avec la dépouille desquels l’on faisait des fourrures, ils ont de très jolies queues et ont un cri assez perçant.

Il y avait une collection de chats, un rhinocéros, une cage contenant des ibis et de grands pélicans blancs, et des poules sultanes et des ibis de toutes les grandeurs, un tigre de Rajpootam avec des bigarrures plus grandes et plus éloignées que le tigre ordinaire, une paire de lions qui sont nés à Clifton Gardens le 14 Janvier/88, des singes de Burma avec de longs poils sur le haut du corps et la partie inférieure nue et rouge, des singes noirs, etc., des ours noirs du pays – de là nous avons visité le Victoria Museum ou « Institute », la première pierre de laquelle a été posée par le Prince de Galles en 1869. C’est un grand bâtiment fait en partie en marbre et en pierres blanche ressemblant au marbre, avec des dais Hindoos sur les côtés et un dôme central, il y a partout dans les corridors des peintures sur pierre de toute espèce, des scènes hindous, chrétiennes, égyptiennes, une grande salle contenant les Rajahs de Rajpootana qui se sont succédés depuis 1400 jusqu’aujourd’hui avec leurs différentes robes de cour et leur grand sabre, toutes ces salles sont en mosaïque, et le bâtiment entier a coûté plus de 5 lacs de roupies, on y a dépensé beaucoup pour les collections, il y a des collections d’armures de l’Inde, de coupes faites dans le pays et ailleurs, en bronze et cuivre travaillés, des collections de travaux de dorure sur soie, des photographies du pays, dans des cadres tournants adaptés aux colonnes, des collections d’animaux marins les plus extraordinaires faits en imitation de verre, une salle de botanique avec des spécimens faits en toile et en cire dans des cadres contre les murs, enfin un tas de choses très instructives, ce qui est beau ce n’est pas tant les curiosités que les choses pratiques, par exemple des collections de médicaments locaux, des tableaux représentant la manière de fabriquer la laine, des vues de perspectives, etc. Sur les sablières il y a des mottos ecrits et dont la collection se vend en brochures pour 4 Annas. Du haut de ce bâtiment on voit tout le cirque de Jaypoore qui est très joli, c’est un cirque assez grand et en face sur la montagne au dessus du palais du Rajah l’on voit « Welcome » écrit en lettres immenses sur la pierre, au dessus et sur la crête il y a un fort et d’autres bâtiments. A trois heures de l’après-midi nous sommes entrés dans la ville qui est entourée de murs comme Ahmedabad. A la porte principale il y a un grand carré et puis la porte est travaillée en cuivre, on est frappé tout de suite par la largeur de la rue et la propreté et par la couleur locale, toutes les maisons qui sont parfois à plusieurs étages sont peinte en rose avec des dessins de vases à fleur, de bordures et des fanfreluches, les fenêtres sont presque toutes assez grandes pour y passer la tête, et le style Hindoo prédomine, c’est une ville entièrement hindoo. Au centre de la ville est le palais du Maharajah. On y entre par un grand portique peint en jaune avec décorations, et on passe par plusieurs cours pour arriver à la chambre du conseil et à la salle de banquet, deux immenses salles éclairées au gaz. La route est pavée avec des pierres taillées comme de la tôle galvanisée, les portes sont hautes et doublées entièrement en cuivre. Les salles de conseil sont décorées de jolies dessins en bleu et de dorures et sont toute en marbre. Les jardins sont bien disposés, et il y a de grands bassins avec des tuyaux pour jets d’eau au bas. Il y a des plantations d’orangers et de goyaviers dans les carrées, une fougeraie, et à gauche le Zénana ou palais des femmes. Nous avons vu là un jongleur faire de très jolis tours avec des bâtons et des cercles ornés de poids. Au bout de la cour et séparé par une longue ligne de bâtiments il y a une pièce d’eau où l’on voit des caïmans.

Jaypoore 22.1.94.

J’ai fait hier une longue promenade au clair de lune sous les grands arbres qui mènent au chemin de fer, avec Mr. Durfort, il faisait assez froid. Ce matin nous sommes partis pour le Ameer Palace à 3 ou 4 miles d’ici. Le pays est sec et les montagnes peu plantées d’arbres. Tout le long de la route l’on voit des bâtiments et des tombes en désuétude. Arrivés à la porte d’Ameer, nous avons mis pied à terre et nous sommes faits photographier à dos d’éléphant, puis nous avons fait le reste de la route sur un éléphant conduit par un homme habillé de blanc avec une toque à queue qui le faisait marcher avec sa pique ; l’animal est assis pour nous permettre de monter par le moyen d’une échelle ; nous avons été bien secoués et la route est assez en pente, tout le long il y a un garde-fou en maçonnerie ; nous avons passé près du Water Palace, deux gros bâtiments construits au milieu de la mare. Il y avait un crocodile qui se séchait au soleil et beaucoup de canards sauvages. Le reflet des dômes sur l’eau est assez joli, mais tout cela est assez abandonné et beaucoup plus joli en photographie qu’au naturel.

Le Ahmeer Palace est sur le coteau de la montagne, le Maharajah n’y vient que les jours de fêtes et c’est assez abandonné, il y a une quantité de coins et de recoins, des corridors et des Kabar-Mahal en marbre, des salles avec des enchevêtrements de glaces et des morceaux d’acier brillant entourés de floritures, ces salles sont supportées par des collones basses en marbre sculptées et il y a des découpures de vases à fleur en couleur sur le mur blanc, le Zénana est assez joli avec de grandes pierres sculptées à jour.

Dans l’après-midi nous avons été voir le School of Arts qui est un endroit où on enseigne le dessin, la peinture, la sculpture et la poterie ainsi que le travail de bronze. Des enfants étaient à copier des dessins assez compliqués. Un groupe était à sculpter le dieu Mahadeo représenté avec un colier de têtes autour du cou, et fait en marbre blanc couché sur le dos, un autre dieu le destructeur fait en marbre noir avec six bras est debout sur son corps. Il y avait dans la salle d’entrée des statues de plâtre assez bien faites. En haut nous avons vu graver sur le bronze, on enduit l’objet de chaux et l’on trace au crayon ce qui doit être fait et puis l’on gratte avec un poinçon, c’est très simple de fabriquer tous les objets en bronze. Au fond il y a une boutique où sont étalés tous les objets pour la vente. Il y avait de très beaux plateaux en cuivre avec support en bois pour services à thé, des peintures très fine représentant un éléphant ou un cheval faits avec des femmes enchevêtrées, en costume oriental. C’est extraordinaire ce qu’il y a de pigeons dans la ville. Ils viennent tous sur une grande place et on les nourrit avec des grains. Jaypoore est la ville des paons, il y en a quantité et ils font un vacarme d’enfer la nuit. Des processions de femmes vêtues de toutes les couleurs passent dans les rues en chantant pour annoncer un mariage, nous en avons vu un, toute une caravane avec des femmes devant portant des plateaux de nourriture sur la tête. On voit passer dans les rues des enfilades de dromadaires portant des provisions, ils ont une corde passée dans le trou du nez et sont attachés à la queue de celui qui est devant. Il y a aussi pas mal d’éléphants qui marchent majestueusement avec des clochettes autour du cou. Nous avons rencontré une panthère avec un capuchon sur la tête, conduit par un homme. Dans l’après-midi nous avons été aussi visiter l’écurie du rajah, il y avait des chevaux arabes, indiens, etc., de toute beautés, attachés par des cordes aux chevilles devant et derrière pour les empêcher de ruer. Nous sommes rentrés au Dak Bungalow à 5 heures et après avoir dîné, nous sommes partis pour la gare pour prendre le train de 6 heures pour Delhi, à 9 ½ nous avons redîné à la jonction de Bandikni et sommes arrivé à Delhi ce matin à 5 heures avec un froid délicieux.

Delhi, 23 Janvier/94.

Nous sommes très mal installés dans une dépendance, toutes les chambres étaient prises dans la maison principale par des fonctionnaires qui habitent ici et des voyageurs. Nous avons battu tous les hôtels et n’avons pu trouver que ceci. Un homme de l’hôtel, un métis, s’est offert pour nous servir de guide, il s’appelle Collins et se dit le neveu du percepteur qui était à Delhi lors de la révolte. Après déjeuner nous avons vu des Mahométans faire des tours très intéressants, parmi autres avaler des sabres et faire sortir des pierres, du fil, etc., de leur estomac, escamoter un petit loup attaché à une chaîne, etc. Notre première visite a été dans l’ancien jardin du rajah de Delhi où le guide nous a fait voir l’endroit où le Colonel Nicholson s’est conduit en brave, en soutenant un feu continu à une brèche que les Anglais avait faite au mur, et où ils voulaient escalader pour entrer dans la ville. Le colonel est parti le premier à la tête de ses hommes, ils ont descendu la ravine et à l’aide d’une échelle ils ont remonté le talus et sont entrés dans le fort, de là ils ont marché jusqu’à la porte principale qu’ils ont fait sauter et les troupes ont pu entrer dans la ville. Le colonel a été tué sur la route qui suit les murs. Ces murs sont faits en pierres très dures et ont été difficilement ébréchés. Dans ce jardin il y a une mosquée où le roi venait faire ses dévotions, elle est criblée de balles et le dôme est percé. L’Hôtel que nous habitons était la résidence du Gouverneur Athquit qui a été massacré avant la guerre. L’endroit s’appelle Ludlow Palace.

Le jour de la révolte tous les Anglais qui habitaient la ville ont été massacrés d’une manière barbare par leurs propres serviteurs, les derniers qui restaient ont voulu s’enfuir en escaladant les murs. Ils ont été surpris par les Indiens dans la cour de l’école actuelle ; il y avait un bassin à traverser, et comme ils ne pouvaient pas laisser les femmes derrière et qu’ils essayaient de traverser avec elles, ils ont perdu du temps et ont été massacrés. Dans la ville, là où est le bureau de poste, il y avait une poudrière qui était défendue par neuf Anglais, ils ont défendu ce poste pendant 4 heures, et le dernier ne pouvant résister a fait sauter la poudrière, on a rebâbi sur le même endroit, au dessus de la porte d’entrée il y a une plaque qui raconte ce qui s’est passé. A l’entrée de la ville il y a aussi une plaque en marbre entre les deux portes, où sont marqués les noms de ceux qui ont été tués et blessés. Le « mutiny » a commencé en 1857 en Mai et a duré à Delhi un mois et demi, il y a eu 2 000 hommes de tués ici, et il n’a été achevé qu’à la capture du Shah Jahan le roi de Delhi qui, voyant les Anglais maîtres de l’endroit s’est enfui par un souterrain de son palais et est allé se réfugier sur la tombe de son père au bord de la rivière Jumnal en dehors de la ville. Le palais du roi est dans le fort qui est très bien construit avec de hautes murailles en pierres rouges et qui est fortement défendu. Il est tout en marbre blanc, il y a la salle du trône, le Zénana, les salles de bain, tout cela est avec varangues circulaires à colonnes, et entièrement en marbre de haut en bas avec des incrustations de toutes sortes et des dorures. Ces incrustations étaient en pierres précieuses, et le tout a été construit par un Italien. Pendant la guerre les Indiens ont retiré toutes ces incrustations dont on voit encore les traces, et les Anglais, pour redonner de la mine au bâtiment ont remis à la place du plâtre peint. Le palais donne sur la Jumna et la campagne, et il n’y a pas de murs de ce côté, il y a simplement des canons dans le mur de soubassement. A côté du palais il y a la mosquée aussi entièrement de marbre. Cette mosquée est fermée par une porte doublée de cuivre et elle est appelée la « Pearl Mosque » parce qu’il y avait suspendue devant l’autel la plus belle perle que l’on ait connue et qui a été volée. On a aussi volé le siège du roi, le « peacock », qui était orné des plus riches joyaux, et qui valait des sommes énormes. La seule chose que l’on ait retrouvée a été la couronne royale qui contenait le plus beau diamant du monde qui est maintenant la propriété de la reine. La révolte a été arrêtée ici par la capture du roi qui a été pris sur la tombe de son père. Comme il n’avait pas été le principal agent de la révolte et qu’il s’était laissé faire on l’a envoyé finir ses jours à Rangoon où il a passé le temps agréablement avec de l’argent et toutes ses aises. Les deux fils qui avaient pris une part active à la révolte ont été tués par le capitaine Hutson. Ainsi a fini le plus puissant roi de l’Inde à qui tous les autres souverains venaient faire leur soumission. Au centre du fort se trouve la cour du roi où il rendait la justice. Son trône est enchâssé dans le mur à une hauteur de huit pieds et est construit en marbre. Contre le mur il y a des incrustations de pierres précieuses représentant des perroquets et autres oiseaux. Le premier ministre se mzettait devant lui, au milieu de la salle sur un piédestal en marbre et l’individu qui avait des demandes à faire sur le perron dehors ; on monte sur le trône par le « Private entrance », par où passait le premier ministre quand le roi avait besoin de le voir. Toute la salle est en pierres rouges, elle est longue avec les colonnes et le pavage en pierre unie du pays, de couleur rouge avec des taches, que l’on appelle « sand stone ». A l’entrée du fort, ou « Lahore Gate » nous avons été salués par des gardes « Sikhs », de beaux hommes en toque rouge, avec de gros pardessus, à cause du froid. Les « Sikhs » et les « Goorkas » sont des tribus qui sont très fidèles à l’Angleterre, les Sikhs viennent principalement de Rajpootana, et les Goorkas des montagnes. Généralement les Hindoos sont un peuple plus tranquille et plus fidèle à l’Angleterre que les Musulmans, mais ils sont moins avancés qu’eux. Nous avons été voir la cathédrale en dehors des murs de la ville. Cette Eglise qui est un bâtiment massif à dôme central a été construit par le Colonel Spinna qui en a fait le don à la ville. Une plaque commémorative a été faite au niveau du sol vis à vis l’autel et partout sur les murs il y a des inscriptions en marbre dédiées aux personnes qui ont été massacrées pendant la guerre. Sur certaines des plaques l’on voit toute une série de noms, des familles entières qui ont été tuées en même temps. Le Jumna Nusjid, la plus grande des mosquée de l’Inde, est construite sur une élévation vis à vis du fort et près de l’hôpital civil, on y monte par un grand perron, à l’est et à l’ouest ; tout autour il y a une grande rangée de galerie et l’autel principal, assez élevé a un grand dôme au milieu et deux petits, tout en marbre, le fond est aussi en marbre avec des rangées de colonnes en marbre. Les dalles sont marquées en carrés de manière à ce que chaque personne ait de la place pour faire ses dévotions et puisse se tenir debout en se touchant les épaules, les fidèles se tiennent en ligne pour se prosterner vers la Mecque. De chaque côté de ce bâtiment il y a un minaret de près de 15 pieds de haut en trois morceaux avec un petit toit supporté par des colonnes, au sommet, ils sont construits en « sandstone » avec des filets en marbre de haut en bas, c’est là où se tient le prêtre pour appeler les fidèles, et de là on a une vue magnifique de toute la ville et ses alentours, le fort devant, à l’ouest le « Iron Temple », grand temple hindoo, les vieux forts, et le tombeau du roi Humayan, au sud, la ville s’étend au nord, à l’est et à l’ouest, toutes ces maisons ont des plateformes et des toits plats, on entend de la haut tout le bruit de la ville. Au nord ouest au loin le Kitub Minhar élance sa pointe élevée dans le ciel et est le seul bâtiment dans la plaine immense, l’Eglise, le Lucklow Castle, le monument commémoratif de la guerre, le Flagstaff se trouvant à l’est, le pays est immense, et est coupé par la rivière sacrée Jumna qui le traverse au sud.

24 Janvier.

Mes deux compagnons sont partis ce matin par le train de 6.20 h. pour Agra, et je suis resté derrière pour pouvoir toucher un peu d’argent de la National Bank of India. Après déjeuner j’ai pris une voiture et ait été dans la ville, après quoi j’ai été au « Memorial Building » ou Mutiny Memorial, une tour octogone bâtie sur trois plateformes ave galeries, et des inscriptions sur marbre pour les personnes mortes pendant la guerre, et des tables indiquant les régiments et la quantité d’Européens et de natifs tués dans chaque. Ce bâtiment et les autres que j’ai vus sont au long du Ridge, ou route circulaire. Le pays étant plat, du haut de ce bâtiment on voit très bien la ville. De là au Askar Pillar qui est très vieux, avant J.C., mais qui n’est pas remarquable, Hindoo Rac’s House, qui est maintenant disposé pour un hôpital, et à côté de laquelle il y a un grand réservoir, le Flagstaff, une tour superposée sur une plus grande, et d’où l’on a une jolie vue ; il faisait très froid tout le temps et j’étais obligé de garder mon pardessus. J’ai croisé sur la

route avec un évêque et son secrétaire que nous avions rencontré à Jeypoore et ici.

Delhi est une grande ville et il y beaucoup de mouvement. Nous avons visité une boutique où l’on fabriquait des objets très minutieux en ivoire, et on fait des peintures de sites et de figures sur ivoire, des tapis et broderies très beaux. A l’entrée de la ville près du Cashmere Gate il y a une grande place plantée de gazon et disposée en carrées bordés de grands arbres, principalement de mins, arbres à feuillage jaunâtre. On voit aussi beaucoup de cet arbre sacré des Hindoos qui ressemble un peu au banyan, ils font leurs prières dessous et suspendent aux branches des « chattis » ou pots de terre remplis de grains grillés et d’autres remplis d’eau pour leurs morts, j’en ai vu un près de la porte de Delhi qui était d’assez grande taille et qui poussait sur une maison. Les soldats Sikhs sont de très beaux hommes, ils portent la barbe et ont un uniforme chamarré de rouge. Quelques uns ont une arme ou couteau rond très aiguisé qu’ils mettent dans leur toque et avec lequel ils tranchent la tête d’un homme à distance avec une grande habilité. La population est pour la plupart musulmane, ils ont des mosquées dans toutes les rues, et celle de Jumna Musjid est la plus belle de l’Inde. En partant de Delhi on la voit à une assez grande distance. La veille après déjeuner nous avons fait la visite du Ktub Minhar à 11 miles de la ville. Nous avons passé par le Lahore Gate de la ville où nous sommes descendus et avons suivi le mur pour voir une inscription dédiée au Colonel Nicholson et qui marque l’endroit où il a eu les deux jambes coupées par les balles de l’ennemi en avançant pour prendre un canon, il est mort des suites huit jours après. Tout le long de ce mur d’enceinte on peut marcher et faire complètement le tour de la ville. Sur la route nous nous sommes arrêtés pour voir le tombeau de Sadar Jung, le premier ministre d’un roi Mogul, qui lui avait servi de demeure avant qu’il y fut enterré. Sur la route nous avons rencontré les gens du Kashmere entourés de leur couverture rembourrées de coton avec leurs théières et autres ustensiles de ménage attachés autour de la taille ; ils étaient venus vendre leurs fourrures à Delhi et s’en retournaient. Ils ont le type chinois pas tout à fait pur, et ne parlent guère l’Indoustani, il y avait parmi des femmes, ils faisaient la route à pieds. Nous avons traversé un pays de tombes, bâtiments à dôme unique loins les uns des autres, et contenant les restes des princes du sang, tout ce pays n’est que ruines d’anciennes villes et forts, dans quelques uns des vieux murs des natifs ont bâti leurs cases, dans une de ces tombes, bâties sur plateforme on a fait une station de police (près de Ktub). Dans ces petits villages où les maisons sont bâtis en murs faits avec le la bouse les femmes ramassent la bouse de vache qui est produite en abondance à cause de la grande quantité de ces animaux et tous les murs sont plaqués de gâteaux qu’elles fabriquent pour servir de bois à feu, le feu est lent et ardent et coûte meilleur marché que le bois. Nous avons rencontré pas mal de perroquets verts, des aigles-hiboux, des percheronnets bleus. On plante dans cet endroit du seigle, du gram, du coton, du colza (plante à fleur jaune qui égaye la campagne) ; au Ktub Minhar nous avons tiffiné au bungalow de l’Etat où on nous a donné du riz frais et un bon curry sous la varangue de l’Hotel qui est séparé en deux bâtiments en maçonnerie couverts en paille. Nous avons rencontré là l’évêque de Madras, un italien qui voyage avec un petit séminariste et que nous avons rencontré plus tard à Agra, un type à grande barbe. Le Ktub Minhar est un immense minaret qui est composé de quatre étages bâties en sandstone avec des moulures en longueur et des inscriptions arabiques tout autour, à chaque étage il y a un balcon circulaire qui suit les côtés du bâtiment que l’on escalade à l’aide de 328 marches. Au sommet il y avait une coupole qui a été renversée par le tonnerre et qui a été relevée et posée à côté du bâtiment sur un talus en pierres. Du haut de ce bâtiment on embrasse un immense espace de pays et l’on voit la Jumna de l’autre côté de Delhi, il ty fait un froid très appréciable, et il y a de la brise. Du haute de cette tour la reine qui ne pouvait aller se laver de ses péchés dans la rivière sacrée faisait ses dévotions en regardant la Jumna. La bonne femme appartenait à la noble classe des Hindoos et n’allait pas jusqu’à la rivière parce que c’était dangereux de voyager dans le pays. Au bas de ce minaret il y a des ruines de pagode hindoo avec des dessins ou sculptures merveilleuses, mais elles sont en pierres rouges et ne paient pas de mine, une série de colonnades, d’immenses portes abîmées par le temps, et au milieu de l’enclos une grosse colonne de fer, qui est le bâton d’un roi, signe de puissance. De l’autre côté il y a le tombeau d’un saint prêtre musulman en marbre ciselé tout autour et au dessous à côté une grande porte d’entrée de loa place en incrustations sur pierre rouge. Cet endroit appartenait aux Hindoos au début et en dernier lieu aux musulmans qui l’ont conquis et qui y ont fait toutes ces inscriptions du Koran. Un peu plus loin nous avons vu des types sauter d’une grande hauteur dans un puits auquel on pouvait descendre par une longue série de marches. On les voyait sauter de là-haut, à travers des percées faites dans le mur, la hauteur était de près de 50 à 60 pieds et ils se suivaient à la file. A côté il y a les tombeaux des anciens rois et ministres, endroit entouré de marbre sculpté à jour. De là nous avons été voir le tombeau de Humayan, un roi Mogul, père de Ackbar, Aurmugzib, Shah Jean et Shah Bahadour. C’est un magnifique bâtiment élevé du sol, avec une grande plateforme devant, une vaste salle au milieu, un étage et des chambres aux coins. La sallze du milieu, où sont enterrés Humayan et sa femme, est d’une seule venue avec des fenêtres à l’étage. C’est au bord de la Jumna, et il y a un mur d’enceinte et un jardin. En retournant à la ville, nous avons passé l’ancien fort de Delhi où il y a une mosquée, une grande porte d’entrée qui est au haut de la pente et des murs élevées. C’est là où est mort Humayan, précipité d’un balcon. Nous sommes entrés par le Delhi Gate et avons été dans un endroit où j’ai pris un bain turc avec massage, c’était délicieux. Dans une grande chambre fermée et chauffée des hommes noirs vous jettent de l’eau chaude dessus et vous massent dans tous les sens, puis on vous arrose d’eau froide et glacée et alors vous retournez dans la chambre où vous vous êtes déshabillés, qui est couverte de nattes, vous vous couvrez bien et repartez en voiture tout réchauffés ; nous étions sept ou huit dans la chambre qui est pavée de marbre et est pourvue de réservoirs d’eau chaude sur le côté vis à vis de la porte, et d’une douche froide au dessus. Dans les chambres où l’on s’habille il y a des canapés et on vous passe du thé, du café, des cigares. Pendant que nous y étions est arrivé l’évêque d’une des provinces du sud, un italien à grande barbe.

Agra le 27 Janvier /94.

Mes deux compagnons étant partis le 25 de l’Empress Hotel (Dudlow Castle) par le train de 6.20, je les ai rattrapés au Northbrook Hotel par le train de 3.15 h de l’après-midi, et je suis arrivé ici à n1 heure du matin. En quittant Delhi j’ai traversé la Jumna sur le Iron Bridge, il a fallu prendre le train sur la plateforme opposée et traverser les rails sur le ponton transversal, le chef de gare est un gros bourru avec une grosse voix et un nez énorme, il a l’air d’être juif, il beuglait après des coolies qui transportaient des paquets sur une brouette, j’ai voyagé avec deux Anglais avec qui je n’ai pas échangé deux mots. J’ai dîné à Aligarhdans l’hôtel tenu par une compagnie qui trafique aussi à Toondla ; la salle était assez grande et tenue par un Anglais, nous y avons attendu 20 minutes et mes deux compagnons sont partis et ont été remplacés par un monsieur à grande barbe qui s’est bien installé pour la nuit, j’ai allumé ma cigarette et me suis couché tout habillé en recommandant de me réveiller à Toondla, mais on n’a rien fait, et il a manqué de peu de chose que je parte pour la ligne opposée. J’ai transbordé dans un compartiment à couchettes de trois côtés et ai fait le reste du voyage avec deux messieurs et une vieille dame à lunettes. Nous avons débarqué à Agra Fort et un grand Mahométan est venu à ma rencontre et annoncé que mes compagnons avaient débarqué à Northbrook. Cet hôtel est assez mal dirigé, les mets sont mal accomodés et les lits mauvais, la chambre que j’occupe est assez grande et commode, il y a une rude différence avec celle de l’Empress Hotel à Delhi. Nos trois chambres se touchent et sont au bout de la longère ajoignant la maison. Le duc de Cambridge, sa femme et sa suite étaient ici à mon arrivée et sont partis hier. Ce monsieur est petit et boîte beaucoup, il porte une moustache noire et un grand chapeau d’aloès, sa femme est charmante. Il a dépensé beaucoup d’argent ici, et le tapissier chez qui nous avons passé au bazar prétend qu’il a fait une commande de £ 500. J’ai été bien content de revoir mes compagnons et la première chose que Durfort m’a demandée en arrivant était ce que j’avais payé à notre guide Staines à Delhi. Il avait eu une sautée avec lui au départ ce monsieur ayant refusé d’accepter Rs. 6. Nous avons pris après déjeuner un guide à Rs. 2 qui nous a mené en premier lieu dans le Fort dans lequel on entre par une rue pavée et tortueuse ; comme à Delhi il faut se pouvoir d’un permis pour y entrer, c’est là que se trouvent le palais du roi et le Moti Musjid. Ce dernier bâtiment est très beau, on y entre par une porte ornée et surmontée de coupoles de style mogul, les marches sont élevées et le péristyle très bien fait, l’intérieur est tout en marbre ainsi que les dômes, les deux grandes coupoles et la série de petites devant, tout le fond, le plafond, et le bassin du milieu et tout cela est superbe d’élégance. Le château est à côté, à l’entrée il y a le Diwan-i-Kass ou salle d’audience publique en sand stone et marbre avec le trône au fond sur la plateforme qui donne dans le palais lui-même, la devanture est entourée de vieux canons rangés en ligne et de porte-obus. Et la cour entourée d’une grille ; devant il y a la tombe du gouverneur de Agra qui est mort le 9 Septembre /57 après le Mutiny. De là nous sommes entrés dans le

palais d’Aurungzib, le père de Shah Jehan et nous avons visité les appartements de sa femme hindoo, cet empereur en avait une hindoo, une chrétienne et une autre mahométane. Les appartements de sa femme hindoo sont du même style en grais rouge. De là nous avons vu une série de chambres et puis sommes montés dans le Zénana. Au rez de chaussée il y a aussi la salles des bains qui est sombre et dont le plafond est incrusté de glaces miroitantes. L’effet de lumière à la torche est merveilleux. Aurunzib y venait voir s’y baigner ses femmes. A la porte nous avons vu des peintures sur ivoire, médaillons recouverts de vitres représentant la famille royale, Shah Jehan et Taj Mahal sa femme, Ackber, Aurungzib, Humayan, et leurs femmes, etc. Le palais est sur le bord du Taj et en face du Taj qui est plus loin sur le même bord en suivant le coude. Les appartements des femmes sont sur le bord de la rivière, tout en marbre blanc et surplombant la rivière, les soubassements étant les remparts du fort. Nous avons passé successivement la salle de toilette avec les niches pour les bijoux et la cour devant, et deux petits bâtiments à couvertures en cuivre, la chambre de Taj Mahal qui est excessivement coquet avec ses mosaïques, le dôme en marbre ainsi que le balcon, sur le côté il y a la cour en marbre où se mettait le roi pour voir ses femmes faire leur jeux de « cook » sur un damier à l’un des bouts. Puis la galerie donnant sur la cour où le roi voyait les jeux hippiques et les batailles d’éléphants. Puis après il y a la chambre d’audience privée devant laquelle il y a un balcon avec de belles colonnes en marbre, d’où les femmes pêchaient au poisson dans un bassin dans la cour qui a été comblé plus tard ; avant cela ily a une petite mosquée en marbre et sand-stone à côté duquel il y a un donjon où Shah Jehan a été tenu prisonnier par son fils. Tout cela est en grande partie en marbre blanc et le quartier des femmes est entouré de carrés de marbre travaillé à jour. Sur le côté de la salle d’audience privée il y a piedestal en marbre noir d’où le roi rendait ses sentences de mort et qui est posé sur une large terrasse donnant sur une grande cour circulaire.

En quittant le fort nous avons traversé la Jumna sur un pont provisoire posé sur des vieux générateurs pour traverser lequel il faut payer une demie roupie et avons traversé un village pour arriver au tombeau de (….. ?) un charmant petit monument en marbre travaillé à jour et composé d’un carré surmonté d’un autre plus petit et orné de coupoles avec des tours à coupoles aux quatre coins. L’extérieur ainsi que l’intérieur sont incrustées de pierres et peints en arabesques avec de jolis jardins plantés de mandarines, de tamariniers et autres arbres. Cette tombe a été construite par la Taj Mahal pour son père qui était un persan premier ministre de Shah Jehan. Dans l’après-midi nous avons été faire la visite au Taj qui est à un mile de l’hôtel, on passe pour y aller par une route large bordée de nims avec des bungalows peints en rose et recouverts de paille, et d’autres carrés entourés de pelouses, avec quelques arbres plantés à distance et des bougainvilléas et lianes en fleur. Près de l’entrée il y a des plantations entourées de murs faits en boue avec une terre grise ressemblant à du sable, un vieux cimetière et un petit village contenant des boutiques où l’on vend des objets en marbre sculpté et incrusté. On y entre par une double enceinte, la porte extérieure étant perpendiculaire à la porte principale. Cette dernière porte est charmante. C’est un gros bloc fait en sand-stone rouge incrusté au bas avec du marbre blanc et noir, le plafond rond du milieu est peint en zig-zag en blanc et ressemble à un immense nid d’araignée. Les petits portiques sur les côtés sont peints en petits carrés imitant la maçonnerie, et font un joli effet. Le sommet est carré et recouvert de onze petites coupoles en marbre blanc devant et derrière et de quatre plus grandes aux coins. On y monte par un labyrinthe de chambres plus ou moins noires qui mènent à une galerie au-dessus de la porte principale. Le coup d’œil de la porte est merveilleux, le Taj est certainement le plus joli bâtiment que j’ai jamais vu, il est entièrement construit en marbre blanc depuis les soubassements jusqu’en haut, et est d’une pureté et d’un fini qui passe toute description. On y arrive par une double rangée de cyprès droits plantée de fleurs et de gazon au bas et arrangé en figures géométriques avec une longue rangée de robinets pour les jets d’eau et un bassin en marbre au milieu à trois pieds au dessus du sol, et peuplé de quantité de petits poissons rouges et d’herbes aquatiques, de chaque côté des cyprès et traversant un joli jardin il y a des trottoirs larges et spacieux. Le jardin est planté d’arbres de toutes sortes, de grenadines, de calebasses d’Amérique, de roses et de grands arbres qui se rejoignent en voûtes à travers lesquels on voit le ciel dans le lointain et la rivière Jumna. Tout cela est entretenu et balayé soigneusement, il y a des fleurs qui embaument l’air et on y respire la paix et la tranquillité. Ce jardin a été fait par les Mahométans et est appelé le jardin de Dieu, « que nul qui n’ait l’âme pure n’entre dans le jardin de Dieu. » Sur une immense terrasse sur lequel on monte par un perron recouvert est posé un bijou de travail. De loin la grande porte d’entrée avec sa voûte en demi-cercle taillée à facettes et les deux portes au fond une au-dessus de l’autre, travaillées à jour est d’un effet merveilleux. Le bâtiment est en octogone avec des minarets sur le sommet des portes carrées, un immense dôme au milieu entouré de quatre coupoles. Sur les quatre côtés il y a une immense tour en marbre dont les carreaux sont joints par du marbre noir, ces tours sont en trois blocs élancés et recouvert d’une jolie coupole à colonnes sculptées. Sur la porte principale dans un immense carré sont écrits des versets du Coran en marbre noir incrusté, au bas le marbre est travaillé en fleurs de toutes sortes principalement des « lotus flowers », entourés d’incrustations de pierres de toutes les couleurs. L’intérieur est un dôme immense en marbre taillé à facettes, et au milieu de cette grande salle et entouré d’une barrière octogone en vieux marbre poli d’une grande beauté travaillé à jour en fleurs de toutes sortes et encadré de fleurs de pavots et autres est la tombe de la Belle du Palais, l’Etoile de l’Inde, l’épouse adorée du Shah Jehan le puissant monarque Mogul. Sur son cercueil, incrusté en marbre noir sont écrits les 99 attributs de Dieu et le bas est décoré de fleurs incrustées et faites avec des pierres de toutes sortes. A côté d’elle est enterré le roi et sa tombe est aussi magnifiquement décorée. Des cicerones nous ont expliqué tout cela et l’un d’eux avec une voix très pure a crié « Allah Jalalahah » « Allaha Ackbar », sa voix s’est répercutée avec une pureté inouïe pendant plus d’une demi minute, cette immense voûte en marbre donne un écho argentin qui surpasse tout ce que j’ai vu, c’est vraiment sublime.

Agra, le 28 Janvier.

Nous sommes retournés au Taj hier dans l’après-midi et nous y retournons ce soir pour voir les jets d’eau. On ne peut se lasser de regarder ce magnifique chef-d’œuvre qui a coûté des millions de roupies, plus de 30 millions ont été dépensés par le roi pour servir à construire un palais assez beau pour contenir les dépouilles mortelles de son épouse adorée, cet homme a été heureux, il a aimé, il a été aimé et tous les deux reposent en paix. Sa femme est morte en 1629 en lui donnant son huitième enfant, et la roi a commencé alors à construire cette tombe qu’il n’a achevée que 7 ans après. Du balcon de son palais dans le fort il voyait monter ce monument. De la terrasse du Taj on voit le palais en face, et au dessous il y a une longue terrasse, en grès rouge émaillé de marbre blanc qui fait un très joli effet en le regardant dans des sens divers. Au bas coule la Jumna, qui se déroule à perte de vue comme un immense serpent. Les bords ne sont plantés que de céréales et l’eau est assez trouble, le courant bien prononcé. Dans le jardin du Taj il y a des hommes avec des arbalètes armés de boules faite avec de la boue durcie, qui chassent les oiseaux de proie, cet endroit est l’asile de la paix et ces oiseaux n’y doivent pas séjourner.

Hier matin nous avons été visiter le tombeau d’Ackbar à Secundrah. Il y a à l’entrée un majestueux portique incrusté de marbre de différentes couleurs, un grand cordon avec incrustations en biais tout autour et des carrés de différents dessins tout autour. Il y a une grande promenade bordée d’orangers qui mène au tombeau et aux quatre coins de l’horizon il y a une porte et une promenade qui convergent. Cette tombe est composée d’un immense carré surmonté d’une terrasse au milieu de laquelle il y a des étages plus petits avec des colonnades à la mode chinoise. Dans la salle d’entrée qui est bordée de marbre taillé avec fleurs on a repeint une partie du plafond en arabesques bordées d’or. C’est un joli travail qui doit coûter beaucoup d’argent. Le gouvernement l’a fait dans un coin pour donner au touriste une idée de ce que la chose était, mais il ne peut s’amuser à y dépenser de l’argent, il ne fait que le strict nécessaire pour l’entretien. Tous les dômes et coupoles sont en marbre blanc, quelques uns peints. Au sommet tout à fait il y a un treillis de marbre, une cour pavée de même et au milieu la tombe d’Ackbar, un gros bloc en marbre travaillé au chevet duquel il y a un bloc sculpté qui était surmonté d’une boule d’or, en haut duquel était enchâssé le fameux Koh-i-Noor qui a été enlevé par l’empereur perse Nadar. Le tombeau du grand Ackbar est dans une chambre obscure au fond, avec un grand dôme où l’écho est assez bon. Dans les salles à côté sont enterrées les Begams, et autres membres de la famille royale.

Le pays est assez bien cultivé de Agra. On y va par une belle allée bordée de grands arbres avec des champs immenses bordés de fouillis d’arbres, il y a des puits surmontés d’un cadre en bois et desquels on retire l’eau par le moyen de bœufs qui travaillent sur un plan incliné. A travers la campagne il y a sur la route un immense canal très large qui s’en va à perte de vue et qui est bordé d’arbres, il faisait frais et le voyage a été délicieux, nous n’irons pas à Fatepoor Sikai qui est à 18 miles d’ici, le voyage était trop long, Muttra est encore plus loin un village hindoo. Fatepoor Sikai est un pays de tombes, nous en avons vu d’assez beaux ici et ne tenons pas à voir cet endroit. Mes deux compagnons sont partis ce matin pour la messe et je suis seul ici, nous avons été hier faire visite à l’archevêque et il est venu nous rendre visite à l’hôtel, il habite tout près de l’église ou cathédrale qui est un beau bâtiment avec une flèche élevée et des statues en marbre blanc posées dans des niches à fond bleu sur la devanture. Nous sommes entrés dans un petit salon où il y avait le portrait du pape actuel, Léon XIII je crois, l’ancien archevêque d’Agra avec sa petite barbe blanche, les lèvres rasées, et le portrait d’un moine, un vieux prêtre anglais est venu nous dire que sa seigneurie était en tournée de visite, nous n’avions pas de carte et j’ai trouvé dans mon portefeuille une carte de Durfort, et Bagneux en a trouvé une de René, nous les y avons laissées. Il a été question hier que j’aille avec ces messieurs jusqu’au Japon, mais je crois que je n’aurais pas assez d’argent pour cela.
29 Janvier 94.

Nous avons été ce matin voir la Jumna Musjid d’Agra, une mosquée en grès rouge entourée de boutiques, avec les dômes bigarrés d’ivoire, à l’entrée du Fort. De là nous avons traversé le Jardin Public et avons débarqués à une boutique de natifs où nous avons vu fabriquer des broderies de fil d’or sur satin, et nous sommes rentrés à l’hôtel pour déjeuner. Nous avons alors pris le train de midi 20 pour Cawnpore. La gare est un bâtiment en pierre couvert en ardoise avec deux petits toits carrés bordés de fer travaillé. Jusqu’à la station d’après nous avons vu le Taj à côté de la rivière, avec ses minarets qui s’élancent de la plateforme. Du pont qui traverse la Jumna le Palais avec son balcon sur la Rivière est très joli. La campagne est toujours la même, assez monotone.

Hier après-midi, après avoir revisité le Jehangir Mahal, nous sommes retournés au Taj pour y jeter un dernier coup d’œil et voir les jets d’eau qui ne sont rien d’extraordinaire mais les toilettes étaient bien bonnes et il y avait beaucoup de monde, de gracieuses musulmanes avec leur voile sur la tête et leurs pantalons, des messieurs gantés, des dames à la taille bien prise. Nous n’avons pu nous arranger pour voir de Nantch-girls ou danseuses.
30 Janvier. Cawnpore.

Nous sommes arrivés ici depuis hier soir ; nous avons dîné à la gare en débarquant, dans une grande salle bien ornée avec des pyramides de paquets de thé, d’immenses bouteilles sur les buffets, et cinq pendules qui donnent les heures de différents endroits. Après dîner nous avons marché jusqu’au Railway Hotel, tenu par Mr. Lee, un vieux de 70 ans qui a assisté dans la 53me Staffordshire Highlanders à la guerre des Sipays et qui nous a servi de guide ce matin. C’est un vrai breton, trapu, flegmatique, tout blanc, avec sa figure rouge et ses yeux bleus et le nez droit un peu fendu. Il est un des rares Anglais qui soit dans l’Inde et qui s’est battu contre les Sipays. Il est très communicatif et accompagne tous ses hôtes à travers l’endroit. Nous nous sommes embarqués avec lui et il nous a montré à quelque distance de l’hôtel le domaine de Nana Sahib, le fameux chef des révoltés. Ce Nana Sahib ou Nana Dimdepot avait pour demi-frère Nana Ras ; il était Mahratta Hindoo, une caste inférieure Hindoo, très belliqueuse et audacieuse. Il était mécontent du Gouvernement anglais à cause à cause du peu d’attention qu’il donnait à ses titres. Nana était enfant naturel d’un roi Mahratta, qui l’avait reconnu comme héritier. Le gouvernement ne voulant pas reconnaître ses titres, il monte les natifs contre les Anglais, et comme il était excessivement riche, il fournissait les fonds et entretenait la révolte. Les natifs avaient à leur tête cinq chefs qui étaient Fantitobi, Nana Saïb, roi de Cawnpore, le roi d’Oudh, Xuer Sing, roi de Ara à Bengal, et le roi de Delhi. Les révoltés, pour se transmettre le mot d’ordre, faisaient circuler des gâteaux bénis par des prêtres hindous et qui contenaient des imprimés. Quand ils avaient ouvert ces gâteaux, le serment de fidélité à l’Angleterre était brisé et ils étaient libres de se battre contre elle. Les révoltés étaient absolument maîtres du pays et se transmettaient les ordres par courriers à cheval. Ils avaient interceptés toutes les lignes télégraphiques et les Anglais qui étaient éloignés ne pouvaient se transmettre aucunes nouvelles. Nana au début de la révolte était à Cawnpore où il y avait le plus grand nombre d’Anglais. Il se passait pour fidèle à l’Angleterre et donnait des conseils au Général Wheeler pour la position qu’il devait prendre. Il était un homme très bien éduqué et élevé, riche et puissant, il était reçu dans la société anglaise et assistait aux danses. Sur ses conseils les Anglais s’étaient campés dans une longère de bâtiments fraîchement construits et dont il ne reste maintenant que la trace des soubassements. Wheeler avait fait circuler un ordre écrit prescrivant à tous les Anglais de se réunir dans cet « entrenchment ». Tout autour il avait fait faire un mur en boue derrière lequel les soldats se battraient, et toutes les femmes et les enfants étaient dans la caserne. Devant la maison il y avait un puits et la campagne autour où était l’ennemi était nue. Pour s’approvisionner d’eau on allait au puits au péril de sa vie, et les gens mouraient de faim et de soif, de choléra et d’apoplexie sous une chaleur brûlante. Wheeler était blessé au lit. Ils se battirent bravement et quand ils avaient été chassés du grand carré ils occupèrent un plus petit. De l’autre côté de la butte il y avait un puits où les hommes transportaient les morts au péril de leur vie et au dessus duquel on a érigé une croix en pierre avec des inscriptions. De l’autre côté se trouve la rangée de casernes bâties en plusieurs portions en biais et le champ de course devant. Poussés aux dernières extrémités, ils reçurent un imprimé signé Nana, que leur porta une femme indienne et dans lequel ce dernier leur offrait de les expédier par bateau jusqu’à Allahabad sans qu’ils souffrent des révoltés, à condition qu’ils rendent leurs armes. Wheeler accepta, et ils partirent tous pour la rivière Gange au « Suttee Chowra Ghant » aussi appelé « Massacre Ghant », un endroit où il y a sur la rivière une pagode hindoue en octogone avec une chaîne qui descend du plafond et une pierre sur les dalles. Le plafond est peint de différentes figures, et l’extérieur aussi ornée de figures peu décentes qui ont été plus tard effacées. Sur la devanture il y a deux plateformes et des marches qui mènent à la rivière, à l’est il y a un grand coude sur lequel est bâti le pont de voitures et de chemin de fer. A l’est il y a des plateformes en briques sur lequel les hindous faisaient leurs crémations et les femmes se faisaient brûler vivantes, les cendres étaient jetées après dans le Gange. Wheeler arrivé à la porte de la pagode fut assez étonné, ils entrèrent et descendirent les marches. On commença par embarquer de vieilles femmes et des invalides dans trois bateaux attachés ensemble, puis d’autres vinrent derrière, les jeunes femmes et les jeunes gens furent ordonnés de rester dans la pagode. Wheeler était sous le portique au débarcadère étendu sur son palenquin, ils se tenaient à l’est sous l’abri du parapet quand Nana et ses homme, richement vêtus, principalement d’anciens sous-officiers et soldats natifs qui avaient été faits officiers supérieurs, et ils se précipitèrent sur l’ennemi sans défense et firent un carnage au sabre et au fusil. Les femmes furent transportées à la maison de Nana et on en disposa comme il sera dit ci-après. Sur la rive est du Gange on avait porté des canons à distance et les bateaux étaient bombardés comme ils passaient. Les femmes et les enfant se précipitèrent pêle-mêle dans l’eau pour regagner la rive opposée et quand ils approchaient ils étaient bombardés par des canons cachés sous les fouillis, ils furent presque tous tués. Sept officiers et soixante six hommes écha&ppèrent et furent repris et enfermés dans Savadar-House, la maison de Nana Sahib de l’autre côté du champ de course. Ces pauvres diables furent enchaînés par les mains et ne pouvaient manger un peu de riz qu’en se recourbant et en le prenant avec la bouche. Quand ils mouraient on ne les retiraient pas. Une pierre commémorative leur a été érigée près de l’Eglise. Les femmes furent transportées dans une maison qui est maintenant détruite et à la place de laquelle il y a une croix en marbre blanc sur un piédestal noir. Cette croix est à l’ouest du monument de Cawnpore et le prince de Clarence, à son voyage aux Indes, peu de temps avant sa mort y a fait planter trois saules pleureurs et deux cyprès. Cette maison était à deux étages de 16 chambres chaque, on y a entassé les femmes et les enfants, les hommes ont été mis dans la maison d’à côté, la maison de Nana était au nord, un puits au milieu, un grand arbre sur le nord est, la 53 ème, dans lequel était Joe Lee, est venue de Lucknow au secours de Cawnpore. Les ponts sur le grand canal qui passe à côté de Cawnpore, sortant du Gange et faisait un immense parcours pour y retomber, avaient été brisés ; la 53 ème passa sur le seul pont qui restait. Il y eut des coups échangés, Nana voyant que ce régiment allait se rendre maître de son palais ordonna le massacre des victimes, qui fut fait d’une façon excessivement barbare et trop affreuse pour être transmise par l’histoire. Quand ce 53e arriva dans la maison de massacre les cadavres étaient encore chauds, on enterra dans ce puits autour duquel une enceinte a été érigée plus tard avec un ange en marbre et deux glaives dans les mains ; 903 victimes, femmes, enfants, vieillards, reste humains. Les Anglais ont alors pris 275 Sepays qu’ils ont traîné dans le sang de leurs victimes, et qu’ils ont fait mourir en les attachant par rangées de dix, avec les mains derrière le dos, à la gueule des canons, sous un grand arbre à côté du puits. Une quarantaine ont été pendus sur l’arbre. Ils sont morts avec beaucoup de sang-froid. Ce monument est bien beau comme travail d’art, l’enceinte est en pierres travaillées en feuilles vignes à l’intérieur, les barreaux sont sculptés et les poteaux terminés par des toits gothiques. La porte est en bronze sculpté, on y descend par des marches circulaires, sur l’orifice du puits est posé un piédestal en pierre grise comme l’enceinte, bordé d’une rangée de cœurs enlacés, et l’ange qui est dessus a les yeux baissés, et une figure calme et reposée avec les branches de palmier dans les mains. A côté il y a un cimetière où beaucoup de victimes ont été enterrées sans aucune inscription. Plus tard des amis bienveillants ont érigé quelques monuments. Tout autour du puits il y a des cyprès, et devant un lit de pensées de toutes les couleurs. L’arbre fameux est entouré d’une motte de terre un peu large. Le jardin est charmant et il est défendu de mener les chevaux trop vite, on y marche tout le temps, par respect. Le monument est réellement imposant. Nous avons aussi visité le « Memorial Church » qui est tout près de « Wheeler’s Entrenchment », c’est un bâtiment gothique avec un grand clocher, et des inscriptions en quantité sur des tables de marbre. Des familles entières ont été massacrées. Il y a la table de communion au fond, les deux séries de tables pour la musique, les inscriptions par chaque porte latérale, et la série de bancs au fond. Le toit est très élevé et l’écho fort ; on a été obligé de mettre par dessus la chaire une couverture doublée de feutre. A côté il y a un bâtiment qui sert d’école et qui a été réduit de moitié. Là se sont réfugiés beaucoup de femmes et d’enfants. Les natifs y ont mis le feu au toit et les gens étaient canardés aussitôt qu’ils voulaient sortir.

Lucknow, le 31 Janvier 1894.

Partis de Cawnpore hier par le train de 4 heures, nous sommes arrivés ici à 8 heures et avons débarqués au Royal Hotel, un bel hôtel peint en blanc et en bleu avec galerie à l’étage et une grande terrasse au dessus de la marquise. Nous avons été bien aise de rencontrer des dames de société et des messieurs en habit autour d’une bonne table. Les chambres sont assez bonnes avec lit double. Ce matin nous sommes partis avec un homme qui avait été le domestique du Colonel Fulton du Génie, un des principaux officiers dans le siège de Lucknow. Nous avons été au début au Kaiser Bagh, une immense cour avec des portes magnifiques qui avaient été couverte de dômes en or et avaient coûté des millions. C’était le palais et le Zenana du dernier roi d’Oudh, la salle d’audience au milieu de la cour sert maintenant de chambre de comité quand le vice-roi de l’Inde vient à Lucknow. A côté il y a un collège de garçons ; la cour est parfaitement entretenue avec de belles pelouses bien tondues, il y a des touffes de liane aurore, des bougainviléas, tout l’immense série de bâtiments de chaque côté n’est pas habitée. De là nous avons été au Musée qui contient un plan de la campagne de /87 avec les maisons autour de la Résidence. Au rez de chaussée il y a une immense collection de figures hindoues, des dieux, des têtes, boudhas, colonnes, des types indiens grandeur naturelle avec lesurs costumes locaux, des spécimens de pierre de Jeypoore, des collections de statuettes en plâtre, ou terre coloriée, des objets en cuivre, des broderies, etc. Un peu plus loin à travers les jolies pelouses ornées de grans arbres on arrive à Bailey Gate à côté de laquelle est le trésor qui contenait 60 lacks de roupies tout autour de la résidence et passant et passant devant cette porte il y avait un mur de retranchement de neuf pieds de haut, l’ennemi était tout près dans la ville où il y avait de belles maisons qui ont été plus tard démolies et à la place des quelles on a fait un parc ; la porte ainsi que les murs et l’intérieur du trésor sont criblés de trous faits par les boulets, il y a un monument pointu avec plaques de marbre à côté du trésor érigé aux officiers et soldats natifs qui sont morts pendant la guerre. Plus loin il y a à l’entrée la maison du Dr. Farrier où 30 femmes étaient enfermées pendant six mois dans la cave, et où est mort le propriétaire des suites de blessures. Les murs sont lézardés, et il y a un petit perron devant. Le Begam Khoti est à côté d’une vieille mosquée, il y avait là aussi 30 femmes. A côté il y a un grand banyan, plusieurs batteries et le Renan Post où la bataille a été la plus forte. Puis vient la maison où était Lady Outram, la rangée des vieilles casernes et cavalerie en ruines. Ensuite il y a le Banqueting Hall qui avait été arrangé en hôpital, il y a des fleurs tout autour. A côté il y a un puits duquel on extrait l’eau au moyen d’un panier en cuir attaché à une corde que traîne deux bœufs sur un plan incliné, ils tirent une forte quantité d’eau en même temps. Puis le Water Gate Battery sur une eminence, avec un gros canon et deux petits. A ce point les Anglais ont tué 2 000 natifs qui voulaient entrer par une trouée, et ils ont fait une sortie et pris plusieurs canons. Le cimetière où est enterré Sir Henry Lawrence est tout à côté, sa tombe est simple, et sur une plaque de marbre sont écrits ces mots : « Here lies Sir Henry Lawrence, who tried to do his duty. May the Lord have pity of his soul ». Il y a dans l’enceinte beaucoup de monuments érigés par des amis aux soldats tués par les Sipayes. Le pays est très fertile de ces côtés, il y a de belles plantations de tabac et de légumes, sur la route qui mène au Grand Imambra ou Machehi Bowan qui est un immense endroit avec une grande porte d’entrée au-dessus de laquelle il y a deux poissons et au-dessus une couronne surmontée d’un parasol, les emblèmes du roi d’Oudh. La cour intérieure contient une grande pelouse ronde bien verte ; on monte à l’Imambra par un grand perron, le bâtiment a 360 pieds de long et est surmonté de deux petits étages, et d’une rangée de coupoles, il contient une salle immense et une varangue de même dimension derrière, le tout recouvert de nattes en cordes avec une quantité de lustres. Au milieu il y a deux tombes entourées de balustrades recouvertes de feuilles d’argent, à côté il y a un ghoon à Hossen et Hassem que l’on démolit tous les ans au mois de Juillet. Dans les salles latérales il y a une estrade au fond, et des balcons en pierres rouges qui ressortent du plafond en voûte, lequel est très élevé. Les femmes du roi se tenaient là pour écouter le Koran. De là nous avons été au tombeau des rois d’Oudh, qui est un endroit planté de jolis jardins. Il y a à l’entrée latérale une grande porte ornée de deux poissons, le dessus est surmonté de pointes. A l’entrée de porte conduisant dans la cour, en dedans, il y a de chaque côté un Romain qui tient une grande chaîne rattachée au sommet de la porte. Au milieu du jardin de chaque côté d’un long bassin il y a un monument représentant le Tage, qui sont reliés par un pont en demi-cercle. Il y a de jolies roses dans les plate-bandes, et autour du bassin des pots de trèfles à fleurs jaunes. Le bâtiment au fond est coquet et contient les restes du dernier roi d’Oudh. Sa femme a été à Paris où elle est morte, et repose au cimetière du Père Lachaise. Autour de la tombe du roi d’Oudh il y a deux candélabres et des lustres de toutes les couleurs, les dalles sont en marbre de différentes couleurs. Le jardin public est vaste avec de belles pelouses bien vertes, au milieu il y a des statues en marbre blanc, un kiosque en marbre, autour duquel il y a un joli jardin planté de roses de toutes espèces, des pâquerettes et d’autres jolies fleurs. Les plates-bandes sont faites de différents dessins et les allées garnies de pierres blanches et de pierres vertes. Ce pays semble le pays des roses. Nous en avons vues de très jolies aux gares de chemin de fer, surtout de belles touffes de roses blanches. Les gares sont ordinairement bien, de grands bâtiments carrés proprement peints avec de longues plates-bandes, plantées d’arbustes et de fleurs.

Dans l’après-midi nous avons fait un tour dans les bazars. Les bazars de la ville elle-même sont mieux, nous nous étions arrêtés le matin à l’endroit où l’on vend l’argenterie et les travaux de cuivre, c’est propre et bien tenu et on y voit de très jolis objets, cet endroit est juste derrière le Grand Imambra, j’ai vu là de très jolis objets en argent travaillé et en cuivre incrusté, de noir et de rouge. Dans une des boutiques nous avons vu des pièces d’or qui m’ont beaucoup tentées. Des gold Mohurs du temps de la Compagnie des Indes. D’autres d’Oudh et de Jeypoore en caractères indiens et arabiques. Une petite pièce d’Oudh avec les armes du roi, deux poissons, la couronne et le parasol, m’a beaucoup tentée. Dans le bazar du cantonnement nous nous sommes arrêtés à une boutique de curiosités où j’ai acheté quelques photographies et où Durfort a pris des statuettes, assez bien faites représentant des types de différentes castes et professions peintes, et d’autres en terre cuite non peinte. Elles coûtent 5 à 6 roupies la ½ douzaine.

A l’hôtel nous avons été harcelés par des marchands qui vendent des broderies et cashmires de toutes sortes, des peaux de léopards, de renards, des sculptures. Mes amis ont beaucoup regretté de n’avoir pas acheté à Delhi des gravures en ivoire représentants des rois Moguls, le Taj, le Jumna Musjid et les femmes persanes, elles étaient parfaitement fines et bien coloriées là-bas, nous en avons de très bien dans la boutique d’un photographe à Agra, mais ni ici, ni à Bénarès nous n’en avons vu d’aussi bien et à aussi bon marché. Dans l’après-midi nous avons été voir une danse de Natch à l’étage d’une petite boutique, où il fallait monter des marches droites et hautes, juste de quoi passer, dans la chambre qui était toute petite avec trois fauteuils et un canapé au fond, il y avait deux musiciens avec leur drap autour des épaules et des guitares, un petit bonhomme avec son triangle, notre guide avec son grand turban, deux fois plus gros que sa tête et sa plaque d’argent à l’enseigne de l’hôtel, était assis sur le seuil à côté de la maîtresse de maison. Le guide avait essayé de nous tromper en demandant Rs. 30. au lieu de Rs. 15 pour trois filles, et il n’en a fourni qu’une seule. La musique et la danse ne valaient certainement pas les Rs. 15 que nous avons données. La fille était de couleur claire, les cheveux attachés en tresse derrière le dos, une robe bordée en bas et devant et une mousseline jaune autour du corps. Elle avait un pantalon en soie bleue ornée d’or, des bijoux aux mains et aux pieds ; elle était très gracieuse, elle dansait en tournant et retournant sur les pieds et avait des gestes de bras et de mains, prenait le bout de sa mousseline entre ses mains et chantait tout le temps, tout cela était très gracieux, mais assez monotone, l’orientale a beaucoup de grâces.

Le lendemain, 1er Février.

Au matin, nous avons pris le train de 6 heures pour Bénarès où nous sommes arrivés à 2 heures de l’après-midi. Nous avons débarqués au Clerk’s Family Hotel, une maison bien propre et bien tenue. J’ai pu avoir une chambre à double lit auprès du petit salon à l’entrée. Il y avait des tentes plantées dans la cour. La ville de Bénarès nous a laissé une assez mauvaise impression. Il venait de pleuvoir et tout était boueux ; nous avons même eu de la pluie en traversant la ville et à bord du bateau sur le Gange. Notre première visite, après avoir tiffiné a été pour le Gange, nous avons pris un coupé à deux chevaux noirs, et après avoir traversé le Cantonnement et la ville native, nous avons débarqué à quelque distance de la rivière pour visiter le Golden Temple. La ville contient une route assez large qui mène à la rivière, les routes transversales sont petites, les maisons sont basses et construites en boue, recouvertes en paille et en tuiles, le monde est sale ; la population est presque entièrement hindoue, la ville étant la plus sainte du pays pour eux. Nous nous sommes arrêtés devant une rue pavée et tortueuse avec d’immenses maisons, la ruelle est très étroite et on y passe qu’à pieds. Aux échoppes on vendait des quantités de pierres de toutes les couleurs, polies et oblongues, des « lingams » ou pierres que les hindous adorent, des poches en tête à cheval, de couleur rouge et jaune pour y compter le chapelet, des chapelets à grains sculptés, des couronnes ou chapelets de fleurs jaunes et de fleurs blanches pour les offrandes. Il y a aussi des fabriques de fil d’or, des boutiques de cuivres, d’étoffes. Le premier temple où nous nous sommes arrêtés est dédié à Ganesh, le dieu à tête d’éléphant et aux quatre bras, que Parbatti la femme de Shiva a fabriqué comme un jouet et dans lequel il a insufflé la vie, c’est le dieu des connaissances. Il est en pierre peinte de rouge et d’huile… Ces temples sont sales, toute en pierre et humides ; on y asperge de l’eau et des fleurs en offrande. Les vaches sacrées y circulent librement. Elles sont en pierre grise taillées, avec un toit central finissant en pointe et entouré de côtes, avec des quantités de petits toits semblable autour.

Quelquefois les temples sont en pierre rouge. Sur la devanture il y a une marquise supportée par des colonnes bien travaillées, au milieu de cette marquise se trouve le lingam planté au milieu d’une pierre ronde avec un manche. Dans le temple il y a le dieu auquel le temple est dédié, il est peint en rouge et entouré de colliers de fleurs. Plus loin nous avons vu le temple au toit d’or, qui a coûté des millions, il y a le toit du milieu qui est assez grand et un autre sur le côté qui sont reluisants d’or, celui de droite en entrant n’a pas été recouvert, le successeur du rajah ne l’ayant pas fait. Dans ce temple est le puits sacré. L’histoire de ce puits est que les Mahométans ont bâti tout à côté une mosquée. Cela a causé des contestations et plus tard on a fermé cette mosquée, et Shiva a sauté du haut de la mosquée dans un puits à côté, qui a été rendu sacré à cause de cela. On y fait des offrandes de fleurs et d’argent et un brahmane assis sur le bord de ce puits qui est entouré et recouvert offre de l’eau sacrée. Dans un temple ou pagode les bœufs sacrés circulent librement et ne se dérangent pas pour vous laisser passer. L’Hindou a le plus grand respect pour le bœuf ; il y a eu dernièrement une émeute épouvantable causé par un Musulman qui a tué un bœuf devant les Hindous, ils ne pardonnent pas cela, et préfèrent le chrétien au musulman par ce que le premier tue son bœuf privément et respecte leur religion, tandis que le musulman est inexorable. Nous avons été conduits dans tout ce dédale de temples qui se trouvent près de la rivière par un brahme de haute caste avec sa ficelle sacrée ; notre guide lui-même est un brahme de haute caste, il est court et gras comme tous les brahmes, une vraie tête d’hindou avec sa figure ronde, un poutou[9] serré et une tunique avec de grandes raies rouges, un paletot européen en satin-laine et une grande toque de couleur paille avec le bout retombant sur la nuque. En sortant de là nous avons été à la rivière sacrée, on y descend par une pente irrégulière et glissante après la pluie. La berge est semée de pierres rouges et longues pour les constructions. Le Gange était assez bas et malgré cela très large ; dans les inondations il monte de 15 à 20 pieds et entraîne les remparts qui sont bâtis pour lui offrir la résistance. Le Gange est sacré parce qu’il sort des cheveux de Shiva. Les constructions qui la longent sont pour la grande partie les palais des différents rajahs hindous, et les pagodes. Ces palais sont très grands et en pierre grise avec des balcons et des tourelles. De grandes séries de marches mènent à la rivière. Sur l’eau il y a des installations de planches sur lesquelles les brahmes se tiennent recouverts de leurs grandes ombrelles en feuilles de palmiers nattés. Ils font là leurs libations et leurs prières. Il y a de larges bateaux chargés de bois et de pierres. Pour les passagers il y a des bateaux conduits par deux ou trois rameurs au milieu duquel est une cabine assez spacieuse, sur le pont, la cabine est entourée de jalousies qui peuvent se relever, on y installe des chaises et on y est très bien ; quand le temps est beau on se met sur la dunette pour contempler les rives. La rive opposée est nue. En remontant jusqu’au pont qui traverse la rivière à l’Ouest on descend à un endroit où est le temple de Népal (Nepali Temple) qui est curieusement sculpté tout autour sur les corniches en bois ; les portes sont aussi en bois sculpté, ce temple est avec un petit étage de forme chinoise. Un peu plus loin l’on voit de grandes idoles en pierre taillées couchées sur le milieu de la berge avec les jambes allongées et la grosse tête peinte, à moustache avec des yeux énormes et un bonnet carré. Ce sont les frères de Vishnou et d’autres dieux qu’on adore. Plus loin c’est la région habitée par les brahmes, avant cela le lieu le lieu où se fait la crémation. Nous y étions, à la nuit tombante. Cette cérémonie est très drôle. Le corps est enveloppé de toile blanche et aspergé de liquide rose, comme celui dont on se sert pour les fêtes indiennes, les porteurs chantent tout le temps sur la route. Ils descendent et déposent le corps dans l’eau où il est complètement trempé. Puis on entr’ouvre le voile et on arrose la figure d’eau, on referme et pose le corps avec les pieds dans l’eau. Le parent le plus proche, c’est à lui qu’incombe la douloureuse besogne de mettre le feu ; le bûcher est prêt, on y pose le corps et le recouvre de bois. Alors le parent rentre dans la chambre qui est à côté et qui est bâtie sur une élévation, et dans laquelle est le feu sacré, tenu par un hindou de caste inférieur qui demande le prix qu’il veut pour un tison. On marchande et le corps attend. A la fin le type[10] arrive. Avant d’aller chercher son feu il s’est fait raser la tête et la figure, il s’est baigné dans le fleuve, s’est revêtu d’une étoffe neuve qu’il ne quittera que dans dix jours, période pendant laquelle il ne touchera aucun des siens et fera sa cuisine à côté, probablement parce qu’il est souillé.

Jeudi le 8 Février 1894. Darjeeling.

Nous sommes arrivés de Calcutta à 3 heures p.m. après un très joli voyage, je n’ai pas eu le courage d’écrire pendant que j’y étais, et ce n’est que maintenant que je suis dans un hôtel bien chauffé que je vais me mettre à écrire un peu sur mon séjour dans cette ville. Nous y sommes arrivés samedi matin à 6 heures après un voyage de 15 heures de Bénarès que nous avons quitté à 1 ½ heures p.m. par le mail train[11]. Nous avons expédié notre guide à la gare et avons fait la première partie du voyage avec un allemand à grande barbe rousse et de haute taille que j’ai rencontré à Calcutta et que nous avons croisé sur la route de Darjeeling. Trois vieilles demoiselles ont aussi pris le même train, elles voyageaient ensemble pour faire le tour du monde, elles se débrouillaient très bien, nous les avons rencontrées prenant leurs tickets chez Cook, à Calcutta. Le pays semble être plus riche et plus civilisé dans cette partie de l’Inde. Le paysage est à peu près le même, il y a quelques petites plantations de cannes[12] non entretenues et petites. Les gares sont bien propres, la ligne est double, et à chaque station il y a un long bâtiment plat de chaque côté, peint en couleur foncée avec un petit jardin le long du trottoir, au bout une petite tour avec corniches pour l’approvisionnement d’eau. Notre train a été directement à Howrah sans changement. Nous nous sommes arrêtés à Mokamah pour dîner, la table est très bonne et la salle à manger grande. C’est toujours la Compagnie de Kellner qui exploite le buffet. A Hounah nous avons pris un palanquin au dessus duquel nous avons entassé nos plaids et valises. La gare est très grande, mais sans style. La manière de s’habiller des Bengalis est généralement avec une toile large qui pend devant les genoux, un paletot avec poches, des bas et souliers, et un plaid de cashmire uni et de couleur ou blanche bordé de broderie rouge, la plus part du temps ils n’ont pas de chapeau, les cheveux sont coupés court. L’approche de Calcutta n’est pas agréable à cause de l’odeur désagréable qui s’exhale de la roue qui est continuellement arrosée et qui est boueuse, et la fumée qui est aussi désagréable. Howrah est de l’autre côté de l’Hoogly, on est obligé pour arriver à la ville de traverser un immense pont très large et dallé de carrés de bithume pardessus lequel il y a des macadams et de la sciure de bois ; il y a des fanaux au milieu qui séparent le pont en deux, la rivière est latge et pour permettre aux navires de traverser le pont bascule au milieu. Le gardien est un gros anglais avec un immense chapeau d’aloès, très court et gros, les mains dans les poches. Après avoir traversé le pont on traverse un endroit infect avec des boutiques de natifs tentées de vieux gonis[13] déchirés et sal et puis l’on arrive devant de jolies boutiques entourées de pancartes et de noms. Le trottoir est large et la devanture est protégée par une marquise en métal, il y a de grandes vitrines et les boutiques sont bien achalandées.

Le Great Eastern Hotel est dans cette rue, le bâtiment est élevé avec une immense varangue devant une terrasse au dessus, c’est peint en vert, au rez de chaussée il y a de grandes boutiques de comestibles. Nous avons passé au début à la poste qui est de style grec avec de grandes colonnes en fer en cercle, supportant un dôme et regardant Dalhousie Square, mes compagnons ont eu là leurs lettres à la poste restante, moi je n’ai rien reçu. Dans cette ville avant la poste on passe devant des Docks, et de grands bâtiments du Gouvernement. La résidence du vice-roi vient après. C’est une immense maison entourée de grillage en fer et planté d’arbres, une grande porte d’entrée de deux côtés avec un lion posant une patte sur un boulet, la devise du vice-roi qui se trouve au dessus de la porte. Devant est le « Dahousie Square » où se trouvent les plus grands magasins, et suivant la rue de ce square on arrive au race-course[14] et à l’Eden-Garden. Nous avons débarqués à l’hôtel de Paris, dirigé par le père Bonsard, l’ancien cuisinier du vice-roi chez lequel il a travaillé pendant 27 ans. Son hôtel se trouve dans le bazar. La table est très bonne. Je me suis installé dans la même chambre que Durfort, une chambre double avec un cabinet et bain au fond. Le père Bonsard est un gros monsieur avec un ventre énorme et la tête enterrée dans les épaules. Il a de gros yeux et une épaisse chevelure, sa conversation est très intéressante. Il entreprend la fourniture dans les grandes parties de chasse données par les princes étrangers, et il y gagne de l’argent. Il a été avec le Czar[15] et le grand duc Alexandre au Népal à la chasse au tigre, on y a tué 1.197 pièces de toutes sortes dont plus de 400 grosses pièces, beaucoup de tigres. On chasse le tigre à dos d’éléphant en les cernant de près. Il a suivi aussi le duc et le prince Henri d’Orléans. Le premier qui est le fils du Comte de Paris et plus proche héritier de la couronne de France est paresseux, tandis que son cousin le prince Henri d’Orléans travaille énormément. Le père Bonsard a un château au nord de Calcutta où il s’approvisionne en truffes, il a une assez jolie fortune qu’il s’est faite par son travail. Il a beaucoup critiqué les français, toutes les maisons de commerce françaises qui étaient à Calcutta ont échoué, tandis que les maisons allemandes font de l’argent, et sont plus nombreuses que les maisons anglaises. Il habite une maison dans une petite ville au nord de Douvre où il doit aller prochainement et où il a des parents, et quand il en a envie il va passer quelques jours à Paris. Il a commencé en travaillant en Angleterre où il a fait des dîners de 800 personnes.

Le soir de mon arrivée nous avons passé au Great Eastern prendre Pierre Adam avec qui nous avons été de l’autre côté du Hoogly voir le « Botanical Garden » qui est très beau, nous avons traversé des allées très longues avec de jolis arbres plantés régulièrement et poussant très droit. Il y a de jolies touffes de pandanus, des pelouses, des kiosques pour pic-nic. Tout au fond il y a un banyan de plus de cent ans qui a jeté de grandes racines et qui occupe une grande place, cet arbre est entouré de soin et il est très beau, il y a aussi des badamiers, tamariniers et autres très beaux arbres, on laisse toutes les branches des arbres jusqu’au sol et c’est très joli. Il y a aussi de belles fleurs. Ce jardin a 272 arpents de superficie, il est bien entretenu et tranquille et on est content de venir y promener après être sorti de la ville. Le retour est ennuyeux. Vers 6 heures du soir les natifs commencent à allumer leurs feux et on passe dans un quartier ignoble où les gens sont couverts de haillons, noirs de fumée et où l’air est empesté. Cela vous pénètre. Les environs du jardin sont assez jolis, les cases des employés bien propres et peints et plantés de grands arbres. Le soir j’ai dîné au Great Eastern avec Adam. La chambre était au 3ème étage par un escalier latéral, et donnait sur la cour inférieure où il y a toute une installation de cheminées pour les cuisines, au même étage sur le devant il y a une rangée de chambres bien commodes avec terrasse qui sépare du bâtiment. La salle à manger est en marbre avec de belles tentures très riches, nous avons pris ensemble une bonne bouteille de vin et du champagne et avons été après cela au Royal Ipera où l’on jouait « Maratina », un opéra où Miss Jacson une brune a très bien chanté, Miss Vera Pati habillée en page était délicieuse, on a fait une danse de castagnettes. L’opéra représentait une scène à Madrid où Don César de Bragance et le roi d’Espagne se disputaient Maratina. Don César était très bien réussi avec une jolie voix. L’opera house est toute petite et on paie Rs. 4 la place, les acteurs étaient assez bons. J’y suis retourné le lendemain avec mes compagnons.

Le lendemain dimanche, j’ai été avec Pierre Adam chez un Mr. Doorga, un riche négociant hindou parlant très bien le français, à Chandernagore. Son commis, un français, est venu nous prendre à l’hôtel et nous avons rejoint le capitaine Fleuriot et son lieutenant de la Fraternité à son bureau. Mr. Douga nous a fait prendre dans son coupé à deux chevaux noirs et nous a reçu dans son salon, où il y avait de vieux meubles français et des tableaux peints, vieux style. Il était habillé de velours violet, on nous a passé des cigares et mis dans le mouchoir de l’essence de sental. Puis, après une petite conversation il a endossé son cashmire brodé, un châle magnifique, et nous a fait voir son jardin, ses maisons, et la ville qui est plus ou moins en ruines, on n’y fabrique que des tuiles et des fauteuils, le seul bâtiment un peu convenable est l’église à côté duquel il y a le couvent des filles et plus loin l’hôpital. La promenade le long de la rivière est jolie ; la berge opposée est plantée d’arbres et on voit la rivière assez loin dans les deux directions. Nous y avons vu une quantité de jeunes filles élevées par les sœurs. Il nous a fait donner à dîner à l’hôtel où il ne nous a pas accompagné, étant hindou. Le pays en partant de Calcutta est assez sec après la récolte de céréales, on y fait beaucoup de briques, il y a des bois de cocotiers, des plantations de bétel recouvertes à cause du soleil, puis du riz, des cannes et autres choses. La population de Chandernagore a décru de 80.000 à 20.000 habitants, la population française, blanche, est presque nulle. De retour à 9 H p.m. nous avons été prendre un verre au Wellington Bar et sommes rentrés assez tard dans la nuit.

Le lundi nous avons été dans des boutiques de photographes où nous avons vu de très jolis exemplaires de chasses au tigre, des photogravures et des peintures très belles de rajahs et autres, ces endroits sont arrangés avec beaucoup de goût. Nous avons été au Bsh. India Cy. et aux Messageries et dans l’après-midi nous avons été faire une promenade en voiture autour du race, ensuite dans le « Eden Garden ». Le « race course » ou « Maidan » est une pelouse énorme avec des arbres au fond, c’est là où l’on fait les exercices militaires et les courses. Tout le monde élégant de Calcutta se trouve là les après-midis, on rencontre les belles voitures, victorias, coupés, palanquins attelés des plus beaux chevaux, beaucoup de « baggies », voitures à deux roues et un cab bien brossé, et la crinière coupée ras. Les messieurs sont ordinairement en veston et chapeau de paille et conduisent eux-mêmes, ou font leur cocher mener le cheval à la bride quand ils ne sont pas dans la voiture ; tout le monde est très élégant et très correct. Dans l’Eden Garden on fait de la musique. La musique du vice-roi joue tant de fois par semaine dans un koisque, les musiciens sont en costume noir galonné avec képi rouge et jouent très bien. Il y vient beaucoup de monde, on se met plutôt en veston, chapeau de paille et gants de peau, les dames sont bien mises et l’on se promène à côté du kiosque.

Le mardi nous avons été voir le jardin zoologique où il y a des bêtes de toutes sortes, zèbres, singes de toutes provenances, tigres, lions, tapirs, une immense volière contenant des perroquets d’Amérique, d’Australie et de différents pays, nous n’avons pas trouvé les serpents qui se trouvent à gauche de l’entrée dans des cages en verre. La promenade jusqu’à cet endroit est fort jolie, on côtoie la rivière où il y a une une très grande circulation de navires de tous les pays,, des docks, une circulation de charrettes avec des paires de bœufs énormes avec leurs grandes cornes, et leurs yeux calmes, le conducteur sur la flèche qui leur presse la queue pour les faire marcher. On passe à côté du grand race-course où les soldats bengalis en costume de cipayes sont à faire la manœuvre, couché à plat ventre et braquant leur fusil. D’autres en paletot de toile blanche avec ceinture autour des reins marchent en ligne, le long de la route des soldats en uniforme de serge noir et casque recouvert de noir, une ceinture de cuir noir autour de la taille. En retournant nous avons passé par le champ de courses et les loges, puis par une route garnie de grands arbres, nous nous sommes arrêtés au « skating club » où nous avons vu beaucoup de jeunes gens et de jeunes filles glisser sur des roulettes dans une grande salle parquée.

Nous étions assez mal logés à l’hôtel et l’air vicié de la ville nous faisait mal, nous avons hâte de sortir.

Darjeeling, 9 Février 1894.

Nous sommes partis de Sealdale Station avant hier le 7 par le train de 4 heures p.m. Le billet jusqu’à Darjeeling en 2nde retour coûte Rs. 33,03. On s’embarque dans un train très commode, les secondes sont à peu près semblables aux premières, on y est très bien jusqu’au Gange où l’on descend à 8 heures ½ p.m. pour prendre un petit steamer qui porte à peu près 1.000 tonnes et qui transporte passagers et marchandises à travers la rivière. On met 20 minutes pour faire ce trajet. Sur le pont qui est bien tenté on vous sert un délicieux dîner et le bateau ne bouge pas du tout. A l’avant du bateau un Indien tient la ligne de fond et chante pour dire que le fond est bon. Pour descendre à la rivière on est éclairé par deux beaux flambeaux qui sont alimentés par un gazomètre ou évaporateur et qui donne une forte lumière. De l’autre côté on descend sur un bateau pont et la gare vient de suite après. Après le dîner, sur le pont, Durfort a été pris de vertige, probablement à cause du soleil de Calcutta et de la nourriture, il s’est étendu tout de son long sur le dos ; nous lui avons administré un peu d’eau sur le front, et avec un peu d’eau de vie, il est revenu à lui. Au lieu d’aller en seconde, nous avons été obligés d’aller en première jusqu’à Siliguri, où nous sommes arrivés pour déjeuner à 8 heures. De cette dernière station l’on change de train, on prend un petit chemin de fer à wagons découverts et légers, les rails sont petits, les roues en dedans de la plateforme, absolument un jouet, un peu plus grand qu’un De Canville ordinaire. A l’avant il y a un wagon fermé avec litière au milieu pour invalide, puis un ou deux wagons fermés, le reste ouvert. La voie traverse un pays charmant tout en forêts, en plantations de thé. Le paysage devient très joli à partir de Siliguri ; il y a de grands arbres entourés de lianes de chaque côté de la route, des ravins et des précipices partout de jolies petites cases sur le bord de la route, bâties sur pilotis à cause du manque de terrain. La voie ferrée suit la route tout le temps et la croise en beaucoup d’endroits, le train suit des cercles, des courbes les plus brusques, quelques fois on passe sous un pont, on fait un cercle et l’on repasse au dessus, la ligne que l’on voit en dessous, dans d’autres endroits, n’ayant pas pu faire le contour la ligne finit en pointe et on remonte au moyen d’une aiguille sur une autre ligne. Arrivés à une certaine élévation il y a de grandes plantations de thé traversées par des routes en zig zag et en ceinture autour des collines, la vue de toutes ces vallées ressemble un peu à la vue des montagnes de Ceylan mais c’est plus grandiose et moins vert. Les pierres sur la montagne sont mélangées de mica et de paillettes brillantes comme de l’or. A toutes les stations on est assailli par des enfants qui viennent mendier. La population est excessivement robuste, tous les hommes sont gros et forts avec des jarrets puissants, le type est chinois mélangé d’indien, ils ont une épaisse chevelure finissant par une queue pour les hommes, les femmes portent une queue de chaque côté de la tête reliée au milieu derrière le dos. Ils ont une veste chinoise avec de larges manches, une toile noire autour des reins, en forme de tablier, une culotte reliée aux souliers qui sont en toile doublée avec du rouge de chaque côté et des semelles en corde très épaisses, ils ont tous un couteau ou poignard assez lourd, d’un pouce et demi d’épaisseur, recourbé devant, qu’ils portent à travers la ceinture. Ils ont la mâchoire très large et puissante, les yeux en amandes. Les coolies portent des poids très lourds dans un panier en osier finissant en pointe et rattaché par une courroie qu’ils fixent sur le front. Les femmes sont richement habillées, propres et bien coiffées, les manches larges et une ceinture au dessous

des seins, elles portent des anneaux en plusieurs lobes en cuivre émaillés de bleu aux oreilles, des colliers de même fabrique autour du cou et pendant sur la poitrine avec une boite au milieu. Elles sont fraîches, joufflues et rosées, tous ces gens ont l’air heureux ; ils sont peu bruyants. A Goom avant d’arriver à Darjeeling nous avons rencontré des natifs très bien mis. Leur coiffure est ordinairement un bonnet fait de fourrure qui pend de chaque côté, quelquefois ils portent un chapeau de feutre gris relevé sur les côtés. Ils montent à cheval sur les petits chevaux de la montagne qui sont très trapus. Les bœufs sont de grande tailles avec de petites cornes et de longs poils. La race est hindoue ou bouddhiste. J’ai vu ici ce matin une danse devant le bazar. Ils avaient des bois fixés en terre avec des pavillons faits en plusieurs cercles au sommet. Les danseurs avaient des bandes brodées aux manches, un costume riche, et ils dansaient comme des sauvages et étaient entourés de monde. Les policemen sont bien mis en serge bleu avec ceinture en cuire et bonnet rond en serge, avec leur plaque. Beaucoup pour se garantir du froid enroulent leurs mollets avec des bandes de toile. L’approche de Darjeeling est très jolie, le pays lui-même est dénudé, mais la ville est propre et bien entretenue, elle est placée dans un grand versant avec des mamelons sur les côtés ; les maisons sont bâties en pierres grises taillées en forme de brique avec des joints bien pris, les couvertures sont en tôle galvanisée partout. Elles sont toutes vitrées de différentes façons avec des varangues vitrées ou des demi-cercles vitrés qui ressortent. La rue la plus commode où se trouvent les plus beaux magasins et pharmacies passe devant le Drum Druid Hotel où nous nous sommes installés pour aller finir devant une place qui domine le versant opposé, et au milieu duquel il y a un kiosque pour la musique ; il y a devant une colline sur laquelle se trouve un beau club et l’église, une route de ceinture l’entoure. En face de l’hôtel il y a un grand collège de Jésuite peint en rouge et de style gothique ; à côté se trouve le couvent. Le bazar est plus bas que l’hôtel et juste devant, il est propre et bien entretenu, quelle différence avec les bazars de la plaine. Nous y avons été ce matin, chez un Indien d’Assam, un bel homme à teint clair, avec une jolie barbe fine et noire et de belles dents, il était mis en long paletot puce avec un pantalon blanc serré aux chevilles et baillant. Il nous a fait voir de beaux tapis brodés de soie de toutes les couleurs représentant des tigres et autres animaux, le Golden Temple de Lahore, le Taj, d’autres brodés de fils d’or, des cashmires, des tapis de toutes sortes, de Punjab, Cashmere et Assam. Il nous a aussi fait voir des fourrures de lynx, joli poil long et soyeux avec une belle queue, de moutons à poil noir et crépu, des enfilades de queues de renard. J’ai acheté là une peau de tigre qu’il m’avait fait à Rs. 150 et qu’il a laissé partir à Rs. 50. De là nous avons été à travers les campagnes bien propres et plantées de beaux sapins et autres arbres, jusqu’au sommet d’une colline qui surplombe la gare de chemin de fer. De là nous avons eu une magnifique vue de la ville et du versant opposé qui est en partie boisé jusqu’au sommet. Tout à coup, ô merveille les nuages se sont dissipés sur le côté gauche et nous avons distinctement vu une partie couverte de la belle neige blanche, on pouvait distinguer plusieurs pics. D’après ce que nous a dit l’hôtellier, ce n’était pas dans la région des neiges éternelles, ces neiges se dissipent vite, les

neiges éternelles sont beaucoup plus belles, espérons que nous aurons la chance que demain matin le temps soit beau, et cela se fasse bien voir, on verra alors le Kintin-Junga le plus haut pic de l’Himalaya, le mont Everest étant l’autre versant.

Il paraît qu’un monsieur Shaw a fait dernièrement l’ascension de ces montagnes ; il a été pris par un snow-frost et s’est trouvé très mal. La brûlure que l’on attrape est, paraît-il, difficile à guérir. La saison de Darjeeling est du 15 avril au 15 octobre, pendant les grandes chaleurs, alors tout est plein et cher, pendant les Bank Holidays on est obligé de se mettre à deux dans le même lit. Dans la saison des pluies il fait mauvais temps 19 jours sur 20, et on est obligé de porter son solar hat de peur d’être pris d’un coup de soleil, quand le ciel s’éclaircit soudainement. La ville est bien drainée, il y a de grands canaux planchéiés, et des canaux partout. Dans ce moment-ci on a 50° farhenheit à l’ombre dans la journée. A l’hôtel nous avons de charmantes chambres avec un lit à sommier métallique, une commode en bois noir bien vernie, la commode de tèque à manche en cuivre que l’on voit partout et un bon feu au foyer pour se réchauffer, le soir on est bien sous ses trois couvertures, on n’a pas envie de se lever le matin et l’eau est froide. Ils ont de 60 à 70 personnes ici dans la saison ; la salle est bonne et l’hôtelier aimable et avenant. Mr. Lord le directeur possède avec son frère plusieurs maisons autour. L’hôtel est au dessus de la rue et il est très bien tenu.

Samedi 10 Février.

Ce matin l’hôtellier est venu me réveiller à 6 heures pour voir la neige. Le coup d’œil était superbe, toute la montagne depuis le Kinchin-Junga et même un peu avant jusqu’à Na-tong une grande courbe était couverte de neige au sommet, les pics autour du Kin-Chin Junga étaient fort jolis, la neige d’une blancheur éclatante, avec quelques filets bleus au dessous des pics, les versants tout à fait blancs, et les crevasses pleines de neige, tout cela suivait une ligne droite et semblait posé sur le ciel bleu. J’ai vu un beau lever de soleil par dessus la montagne, et fait une longue promenade. Au retour nous avons été à l’Observatory Hill d’où la vue était réellement belle. On traverse pour y aller de jolis bungalows plantés de pins avec une balustrade en bois autour. Le St. James School est au bas, on est en train de l’agrandir, les collégiens sont habillés de gris avec le bonnet carré d’Oxford. Il y en avait deux allongés sur la colline, en train d’apprendre leurs leçons. Après déjeuner nous avons été faire un tour au bazar où notre marchand de peau Mahométan nous a fait voir des rugs superbes de chats-tigres, d’écureuils, chats sauvages, écureuils de neige, loups, renards blancs, renards de Bootan avec les queues au milieu, ils étaient très beaux. Sur la route nous avons été assaillis par les marchands de curios, ils portent de large paletot[16], baillant sur le devant dans lequel ils mettent leurs curiosités.

Mercredi 14 Février /94. Calcutta. (de Kali et Kothi – la maison du dieu Kali).

Nous sommes partis de Darjeeling dimanche à 10 heures. Mr. Lord du Drum Druid Hotel nous a fait payer Rs. 7 la chambre et une roupie par jour pour le feu de charbon de terre. Nous y avons été très bien logés, il y avait des lits à sommier, des tableaux, dont l’un que j’ai remarqué représentait le « Dawn of Love », un jeune montagnard assis sur une borne, son bâton ferré à la main et son chien couché à ses pieds, regardant une jeune fille debout à côté de lui, les chambre étaient au rez de chaussée et regardaient sur le bazar au bas. De la terrasse nous avions une très jolie vue de la montagne. Le jour de notre départ, il a fait encore beau et nous avons pu jeter un dernier coup d’œil sur la montagne. Le matin l’hôtelier nous a servi un petit déjeuner dans la salle à manger bien chauffée, une grande salle bien propre avec plusieurs tables, de jolies tentures et des fenêtres vitrées regardant sur la montagne. Nous avons fait le voyage en 2nde. Nous avons eu comme compagnons de route un vieux russe avec sa femme derrière nous en 1ère et devant deux demoiselles qui voyageaient seules et un planteur de thé Siliguri. Notre planteur a été très aimable tout le temps, il est absolument seul sur une grande propriété où il y a des bêtes féroces en quantité ainsi que des serpents, qui s’introduisent dans la maison ou sous les tôles galvanisées. Il nous a offert de venir chasser le tigre chez lui ; on y va sur un éléphant, on se penche sur un arbre et on attache un bœuf au bas ; le tigre saute dessus, le tue avec les pattes lui casse le cou et s’en va, il revient à la tombée du jour lui sucer le sang, et les chacals viennent achever l’animal. Il faut le prendre au moment où il revient, mais pour cela il faut suivre ses traces. Ce planteur est très heureux quand un Européen lui fait visite ; sa porte n’est jamais fermée. Les natifs sont très dangereux, dernièrement un anglais a été assassiné par un d’eux, il a eu le cou tranché. Notre garçon d’hôtel, un jeune tibétain avec sa casquette et ses guêtres en toile est venu nous accompagner jusqu’à la gare. Sur la route nous avons rencontré beaucoup de natifs, un groupe de deux femmes et un homme qui attrapait sa femme entre ses bras pour faire rire le public. A une des stations un jeune tibétain pour faire ses adieux à ses parents s’est prosterné à leurs pieds, le front contre terre. Nous avons fait la première partie du voyage dans les nuages. Quelques fois il était assez épais pour qu’on se croit dans le vide, avec un seul grand arbre en face de soi. Plus nous descendions plus on sentait la différence de température, absolument un bain turc ; il paraît qu’il fait beaucoup plus chaud dans ces gorges de montagnes et dans ces forêts que dans la plaine, à cause du manque d’air et d’humidité. Siliguri est réputé comme étant le tombeau des Européens. C’est le pays de chasse. Au bas de la montagne l’on voit des champs de grandes herbes, comme du gingembre sauvages et dans lequel se trouve le tigre. Sur la route, à une grande station où nous avons tiffiné, nous avons rencontré des prêtres et stagiaires jésuites, des Français, ces gens ont pris une importance considérable dans ce pays. Ils ont à Darjeeling le plus beau collège de l’Inde. A Trichinopoly ils ont un grand établissement. Nous avons causé longuement avec un jeune Vendéen, un compatriote à de Bagneux. Nous avons dîné à Siliguri avec notre planteur qui nous a payé un whisky et est venu nous accompagner au wagon. On a dormi si bien que mal avec la chaleur, et la peau de léopard qui n’était pas curée et sentait mauvais. Nous avons traversé la rivière sur le steamer à 6 heures du matin. Le paysage, à partie de la rivière est très joli, les cases ou villages ont des couvertures de paille en forme hindoue, le pays est planté de dattiers pour fournir le rhum, et l’on voit de grands arbres chargés de fleurs rouges, il y a des plantations de bétel et un peu de jungle. A la gare de Séaldal après avoir ramassé quelques voyageurs natifs et Anglais qui allaient à la ville, nous avons pris des palanquins pour l’hôtel de Paris où nous avons revu le père Bonsard avec un nouveau plaisir. Le jour de notre arrivée, lundi, nous nous sommes fait servir à déjeuner à 11 ½ h. pour garder les heures françaises de ces messieurs, et sommes partis après pour voir le photographe à Sowringer Road ; il a un bel atelier et dans ses albums j’ai eu le plaisir de voir beaucoup de paysages de toutes les parties de l’Inde du nord au sud. Une photographie d’une fête publique à Madras m’a étonnée par la quantité considérable de monde qui était rassemblé, le Golden Temple et autres tombes de Lahore, le veau de pierre avec les natifs à genoux devant, le débarcadère de Madras avec ses bateaux et la mer qui bat sur la côte, la vue de Pondicherry avec la statue et les colonnes, et beaucoup d’autres étaient fort bien faits. Il y avait aussi des types de Thibétains, des sauvages des îles Adamanes, complètement sans vêtements et des marques sur le corps, mes compagnons ont pris une 50ne de vues, et nous sommes partis pour la promenade du soir. Hier nous avons été nous faire des costumes chez Harnac, la circulation des rues est énorme, avec les omnibus qui se croisent en tous sens devant les magasins, et les équipages. Nous avons été aussi chez nos banquiers. Le National Bank of India est un bâtiment de style grec. Tous les employés sont des Bengalis et ils sont assidus à leur besogne, perchés sur leurs grands tabourets et habillés avec leur grande cabaille blanche fermée en rond sur la poitrine et fendue sur le côté, leur langotis[17] bleus flottants et leurs bas blancs. Je me suis assis dans l’enceinte auprès de la table d’un baboo[18] qui m’a fait signer mes chèques et m’a fait porter l’argent. Les directeurs et commis anglais sont dans la salle du fond. J’ai aussi été me balader en voiture dans le quartier européen, les campagnes sont assez bien.

Aujourd’hui j’ai eu une longue conversation avec Bagneux au sujet du « Jockey Club » de Paris où la souscription d’entrée est de frcs. 1.850 et où il y a un luxe énorme, les prix annuels donnés par les revenus du club étant de 3 à 400.000 frs. Durfort est jusqu’au cou dans la noblesse, son père est vicomte, lui et ses frères des comtes, son oncle est duc, le cadet marquis, par sa mère il est du sang princier des Monmorency, c’est un jeune homme très distingué, il se tient bien et a du chic, il a une propriété qui lui donne frs 6.000 de revenus annuels et il passe son temps à chasser à courre sur ses domaines. Son père a une propriété de 3.000 hectares dans la Normandie, il est ancien officier des hussards dont il m’a montré le régiment (du 6me) un tableau à l’huile chez le photographe, où son colonel est perché sur un cheval, le sabre au poing avec un casque à plumet ou queue de cheval derrière. Il est très catholique et pratiquant et aime beaucoup les jésuites chez qui il a été élevé, il a 26 ans et Bagneux 30 ans. La famille est très nombreuse et étroitement unie. Bagneux a une belle-mère qu’il abhorre, sa mère étant morte à 27 ans quand il était tout petit.

Hier nous avons été encore écouter la musique, nous avons été le long de l’Hougly voir les vapeurs du B.I. et les docks. En passant nous avons vu des volontaires européens et indigènes mélangés, avec des costumes de toutes sortes et du fusils à bayonnettes en train de faire de l’exercice et commandés par un militaire. Le Eden Garden est très bien avec ses lampes partout, et les feux bleus autour du kiosque, les dames bien mises se promenant avec leur mari, on s’installe sur un banc et on entend de la bonne musique, la voiture du vice-roi avec son cocher et ses quatre cavaliers devant et derrière, tous en livrée rouge, chamarrée d’or, s’est arrêtée devant le kiosque à côté des beaux équipages. Une indienne conduisant ses deux beaux chevaux noirs dans une grande voiture élevée s’est fait remarquer.Des babous avec leurs bonnets de dentelles et costumes légers, en soie et toile conduisant dans des voitures jaunes, perchés sur leurs sièges, des laquais jaunes derrière des messieurs avec leur chapeau de paille et de jolies bêtes qui trottent admirablement, tout cela est très gai.

Cet après-midi nous avons été en suivant une immense pelouse bien verte, après le fort, voir le zoo. Il faisait frais, et nous avons fait une bonne promenade, cette fois nous avons vu les serpents dans leurs vitrines, où on leur met de la paille et une couverture de laine pour se blottir, nous avons vu un immense python noir roulé dans la case, des serpents verts, gris, etc., de toutes les grosseurs, des alligators à becs pointus étendus sur le ventre au fond d’un bassin à carrés de porcelaine, un petit crocodile à bec ouvert et restant dans cette position des heures entières, des daims piguelés, autruches noires émus, kangooroo, rhinocéros, hippopotame avec sa cuirasse épaisse, séparée sur le dos.. Le quartier des chats-tigres, chats-pêcheurs, léopards, lions, panthères noires et bigarrées, tout cela est fort intéressant. Nous avons fait rager les tigres, leur cri est effrayant et fait dresser les cheveux sur la tête. Les singes sont bien logés dans une maison à compartiments en fer, nous nous sommes amusés à leur gratter la tête à travers les barreaux et à leur jouer des niches ; l’un d’eux m’a pris un quart d’anna qu’il a essayé en vain de mordre en faisant des gambades et des grimaces, un malheureux singe brun qui avait une enflure à la face, nous a imploré en ouvrant la bouche et en se retournant pour faire voir le palais d’où il souffrait beaucoup. La maison des pies avec leurs cris guttureaux était aussi intéressant. A côté du quartier des tigres nous avons vu des singes énormes avec des gueules avancées et affreuses. Le retour a été charmant, on est entouré de lampes qui brillent partout à travers les arbres, l’effet est beau. Le père Bonsard nous a entretenu avant et après dîner sur Calcutta, les troupes dans l’Inde, ses vins, etc. C’est un homme très amusant.

L’adresse du planteur de Sibiguri est F.D. Grant, Central Serai Tra. Cy. Sookna.

Samedi 17 Février /94.

Nous sommes à l’ancre à 4 heures de Calcutta attendant la marée pour pouvoir sortir de l’Hoogly. Je me suis décidé hier à partir pour Singapore où je rencontrerai là le bateau des B.I. pour Maurice, qui part aussi de Calcutta le 28 février. C’est une bêtise que j’ai faite, mais le vin est versé, et il faut le boire, il n’y a pas à retourner sur ma décision. J’avais pensé à aller à Madras pour aller voir René dans la montagne ; comme il est à 25 miles de Coimbatoore, et que le voyage de chemin de fer est assez fatiguant, je me suis laissé persuadé par mes compagnons qu’il valait mieux suivre l’itinéraire présente. Je suis bien sûr que le voyage sera déplorable, car il fait horriblement chaud tout le temps, nous sommes obligés de coucher sur la dunette et plus nous irons plus il fera chaud. Nous avons mouillé actuellement, parce qu’il y a une barre à traverser et que nous ne pouvons aller plus loin. Nous avons été hier prendre mon billet chez Mackinon Mackenzie & Co., de là j’ai fait porter mes bagages à bord, le pont était littéralement encombré de moutons, de chèvres et de vaches, il m’a fallu laisser là mes bagages et retourner, parce que le « Lunada », bateau de T. 3.500 que nous prenons partait pour Garden Reach. Nous sommes repartis pour dîner à l’hôtel et avons embarqués à Garden Reach à 9 heures du soir après avoir bu une fiole de Chambertin payée par Bagneux. Le trajet de l’hôtel est très agréable jusqu’au camp de Garden Reach ; on traverse toute la grande plaine des manœuvres, plantée d’arbres et éclairée dans tous les sens. Arrivés au bout c’est infect camp indien. On descend à un embarcadère près duquel il y avait un petit vapeur à 2 cheminées et plateforme superposée qui fait le traffic des coolies sur l’Hoogly. Là nous avons pris un bateau pour nous embarquer sur le vapeur qui était au milieu de la rivière. Il a fait très chaud pour coucher dans la cabine, nous avons été obligé de porter nos couvertures sur le pont et de dormir sur une chaise longue. Ce matin au réveil, il faisait un brouillard dense et nous n’avons pu partir avant 9 heures. Le Garden Reach où nous étions est très joli, c’est sur la berge du Jardin des Plantes, il y a des arbres en fleurs, des touffes de bougainviléas, et de beaux arbres, un bateau du Clan Line était devant nous. Nous avons rencontré en route plusieurs vapeurs, le Népal du B.I. nous a passé en destination de Rangoon, un remorqueur tirait un navire à voile, plusieurs autres navires nous ont passés. La côte est jolie tout le long, il y a des pirogues d’indiens, des bateaux plats chargés de foin, des cocotiers et plantations tout le temps. Nous avons en fait de passagers plusieurs anglais, une dame anglaise et une anglaise eurasienne, nous nous sommes tenus toute la journée sur le pont à causer et à lire. J’ai eu une petite discussion religieuse avec Mr. Durfort, et lui ai fait lire l’Evangile. Il est entêté au possible, il n’y a rien à faire et je n’ai pu rien lui persuader. Bagneux a des idées beaucoup plus larges et est plus sensé.

Les quelques jours que nous avons passé à Calcutta ont été assez fades, à part les promenades d’Eden Garden dans l’après-midi et les tournées en voiture, on ne faisait rien. Beaucoup de gens venaient dîner à l’hôtel pour la cuisine. Lord William Beresford, l’ancien secrétaire du vice-roi, pour lequel Durfort avait une lettre de recommandation, est venu à l’hôtel hier au soir voir les habitués.
Lundi 19 Février /94.

Nous sommes à l’embouchure de la rivière Gange ; partis ce matin à 9 heures nous avons été suivis par le Clan Buchanan qui a gardé la même vitesse que nous. La rivière est ici excessivement large, on voit à peine les berges.

Mercredi 21 Février /94.

Nous avons passé en tout trois nuits dans la rivière, celles de vendredi, samedi et dimanche, la première à l’ancre au Garden Reach. Le fleuve indien s’élargit indéfiniment à l’embouchure et l’eau est boueuse et rougeâtre quoique très potable, il y a plusieurs petites îles à l’embouchure, l’eau continue à être bourbeuse jusqu’à ce qu’on ne voit plus du tout les rives, et que l’on sente les mouvements de la mer. Le « Clan Buchanan » nous a suivi tout le temps, et arrivés au « stoppage » il a voulu nous dépasser ou du moins le pilote a essayé de la faire pour arriver avant au vapeur qui attendait, en le faisant, il a eu un choc à l’arrière qui l’a un peu endommagé, nous avons eu le contre-coup mais qui n’a pas été très fort. Plusieurs vapeurs attendaient leur tour pour entrer dans la rivière.

Le voyage a été parfait jusqu’ici, Mr Bald et sa femme, un planteur de thé de Darjeeling qui va planter des fruits en Australie pour les expédier en Angleterre a été très aimable et nous a fait jouer au tennis, au reversé, il est très aimable. C’est un Ecossais à figure joviale, d’une 40ne d’années qui passe son temps à jouer avec sa petite fille Marjory qu’il adore ; sa femme a, je crois, un peu de sang indien ; c’est un vrai Ecossais avec tout l’accent. Il y a aussi des Australiens, un marchand de chevaux à barbe rousse, et bonnet rond, en laine, un jockey avec son bonnet et son costume serré, sa sœur est une rousse, qui est très gaie et donne de l’entrain, puis un jeune homme anglais tout petit avec une immense femme, un autre Australien à barbe rousse. Le capitaine est un Anglais, d’humeur charmante, qui joue des parties avec les dames et met le bout en train.

Samedi 24 Février /94.

Depuis hier nous allons très lentement car le capitaine ne veut pas arriver à Penang avant Dimanche matin, le bateau ne va pas à plus de 5 ou 6 nœuds à l’heure au lieu de 9 ½ nœuds, vitesse que nous avions gardé jusque là. Nous sommes à l’heure qu’il est en très bons termes avec les passagers, avec qui nous jouons à toute espèce de jeux de patience, le reversé avec 64 ronds rouges et noirs en carton, que l’on place sur un tableau disposé en carrés, le « Royal Game of Patchesi », course de ronds en os sur un carton disposé en carrés, et que l’on joue à quatre, la partie de tennis avec de petits ronds de couleur que l’on fait sauter pardessus le filet au moyen d’une palette, le jeu de « quoits » avec deux gamelles.

Samedi 3 mars /94.

Nous sommes arrivés à Penang dimanche 25 février à 9 heures du matin, la rade est ouverte, le port est sur une île ayant des collines plantées de café, et en partie boisées, il y avait plusieurs navires à vapeur dans le port à notre arrivée, des B.I., des navires de guerre siamois, le Chilindra, un vapeur de la ligne de Chine qui nous avait précédé à notre départ de Calcutta. A droite du port il y a un sémaphore avec quantité de cordes et branches pour le signalement et les communications avec les bateaux. Nous avons été entourés de petites pirogues malaises à notre arrivée, ces bateaux sont pointus à l’avant, et peints de chaque côté d’un gros œil, il y a des rebords, et à l’arrière des planches en pente le long desquels le malais mont et descend pour faire marcher les deux petites rames très légères qui font aller le bateau. Des échangeurs d’argent sont venus à bord offrir des dollars ou yens mexicains en change de roupies et/d’or, la roupie vaut 54 ou 55 cents de dollar, cela varie quelque fois. Ces malais sont habillés comme des sénégalais et portent un bonnet haut et rond avec des dessins en canevas. Les chinois sont très nombreux et forment comme à Singapore la majorité de la population, les coolies et les petits boutiquiers ont le dos nu et portent un petit caleçon bleu très large, avec la queue pendant dans le dos ; le tour de la tête est parfaitement rasé et la queue part du milieu, une belle queue noire dont le bout est tressé avec un cordon noir ou rouge. On débarque sur une jetée de bois, assez large recouverte de tôle ; en face de la rade il y a un immense bâtiment jaune où sont la poste et les bureaux publics, à gauche un grand bâtiment blanc de style romain. Tout ce peuple chinois travaille, travaille toujours ; on monte dans un petit « jinriska » poussé par un « pig-tail » qui court pendant plus de 10 miles sans souffler. La ville est presque entièrement chinoise, ils ont de très belles boutiques et de jolies maisons ; en traversant la ville on passe devant des maisons peintes plutôt en bleu ou en blanc avec des portes travaillées et des jardins qui embaument, les boutiques sont parfaitement achalandées de tous les objets européens. Nous avons débarqués dans l’après-midi et avons fait une longue promenade de 7 miles dans la campagne, où nous avons traversé un quartier planté de cocotiers et de noix de pâques, dont les branches étaient chargées ; le long de la route il y a des sang-dragons et autres beaux arbres entourés de grosses langues de bœuf et d’orchidées. Puis il y a des jungles marécageuses, des palmiers comme l’arbre-voyageur, – les maisons sont bâties sur pilotis avec des toits chinois débordants et une galerie en bois autour. Au sortir de la ville on traverse des embouchures de rivière, qui sentent la peste, on est obligé de se boucher le nez, et ces natifs habitent là et se portent bien. De retour au bateau nous avons passé la soirée sur le pont à regarder les lumières du port qui sont très nombreuses, et le phare tournant dans la direction du sud, on entendait de temps à autre le buggle du poste militaire, battant le rappel. Le soir il a fait pas mal chaud et j’ai couché une partie de la nuit dans le hamac que le capitaine avait fait installer sur le pont. Le lendemain matin Durfort et moi avons été à terre, j’ai passé au Hong Kong & Shangaï Bank et à une autre banque pour tâcher de me faire payer d’une lettre de crédit que j’avais à la Banque de Maurice à mon ordre et sur la Banque Nationale de l’Inde. Comme j’étais parti de Calcutta sans avoir rempli aucune formalité et qu’ils n’avaient eu aucun avis de cette lettre, j’ai frappé en vain. Ce n’est qu’à Singapore, sur un mot de Lionel Cox, le chef juge, qu’ils m’ont donné de l’argent au Hong Kong & Shangaï Bank.

Le Lawada a descendu quelques chevaux appartenant à Mr. Patterson, une partie des moutons et chèvres qui étaient sur le pont au dessous, et le lundi à 5 heures p.m. nous sommes repartis. Nous étions à l’ancre entre le port et la péninsule, la mer est très calme, il n’y a presque pas de vague, il faisait assez chaud, mais les soirées sur le pont étaient agréables, on voit beaucoup de bateaux de pêche chinois allant dans tous les sens avec leurs grandes voiles carrées cousus en petits carrés et gonflées par le vent. La traversé dans le Détroit est très agréable, la mer est excessivement calme, il pleut continuellement dans cet endroit et nous avons eu la chance d’avoir beau temps pendant le trajet. Nous avons passé tout près des îles Adamante, et avons côtoyé beaucoup de petites îles ressemblant à de grosses baleines ; à un endroit nous étions au milieu d’un groupe d’îles, la mer était d’huile et la lune reflétant dans l’eau faisait un joli effet, nous avons passé aussi en vue de plusieurs phares. En quittant Penang, il faut retourner par le même chemin qu’en entrant et contourner l’île au nord, le passage au sud étant trop peu profond. Partis de Penang le lundi 26, nous sommes arrivés icà mercredi 28, et avons jeté l’ancre contre le quai à 10 heures du matin. Nous avons été à l’Hôtel de l’Europe, un immense hôtel avec salle de billard et une grande varangue donnant sur la rue vis à vis le Singapore Cricket Club, on y est très bien, la salle à manger est grande et les mets bien préparés.

L’entrée de Singapore est très pittoresque. Au large il y a plusieurs îles assez grandes, sur l’une desquelles se trouve un fort à l’arrière plan, il y a encore des îles plus éloignées, à gauche il y a l’embouchure de la rivière Singapore qui est très large et marquée par des bouées pour désigner l’entrée ; puis on passe entre une quantité de petites îles plantées d’arbres et en cônes, sur plusieurs desquelles il y a des canons braquées sur le port, la rade fait un large circuit et tout au long des quais il y a des navires et des vapeurs de toutes les grandeurs et nationalités, allemands, hollandais, chinois, français, etc. ainsi que des navires de guerre ; nous nous sommes arrêtés au « Tang Pakar Dock », au N° 2 ; quand le bateau entre on affiche son numéro d’ordre à un sémaphore et il va se placer contre la jetée. La route du dock à l’hôtel est de plus d’un mile. On traverse un quartier non habité le long de la mer et où il y a de grandes tranchées, puis on traverse la ville native, les squares où sont le Medical Hall, les grands magasins anglais, puis un grand pont en fer à côté de la poste, la rivière est parsemée de petits bateaux indigènes, après le pont se trouve le grand square du club, qui est sur le bord de la mer séparé par une grande route plantée d’arbres. La salle de réunion du club est un joli pavillon à étage, entouré de galeries en fer peintes en vert et bleu, tous les après-midi on joue là au foot-ball, au tennis, au cricket, et alors pour empêcher les boules d’aller trop loin il y a de grands filets de chaque côté du cricket practice. Hier il y a eu un match de cricket, les umpites ont de grandes robes blanches et un immense chapeau en aloès, les dames se tiennent sous la varangue du pavillon et on applaudit à chaque coup bien joué. Les chinois et malais prennent un grand intérêt au jeu en entourant la pelouse. La promenade de l’après-midi est au long de la berge, il y a beaucoup de monde, mais ils ont tous un teint assez pâle, les toilettes sont bien. Les petites japonaises se font hisser en pousse-pousse, elles sont toujours deux ensemble et habillées de bleu ou de robes à fleurs, une large ceinture autour de la taille, un col ouvert derrière, la tête nue, bien peignée avec des morceaux d’écailles piqués dans la chevelure. Elles sont peintes et ont l’air de petites poupées. J’ai été bien aise de rencontrer Mr. Et Mme Marriott, qui ont tiffiné et dîné avec moi. Madame était un peu fleurte, une grande brune à cheveux noirs, son mari est tout petit et très simple, ils payaient toutes les consommations et se faisait pigeonner par les autres. Ils sont venus avec Mr. Patterson au jardin des plantes, la promenade a été charmante, la route est plantée d’arbres, de lianes, de palmiers de toutes sortes, elle est longue et ombragée, nous avons fait près d’une heure de juiriska pour y arriver. Le campement militaire est un peu plus haut que le jardin et placé sur une colline. Le jardin est bien joli, il y a beaucoup d’arbustes appelés « Brownca » couverts de grandes fleurs rouges comme des pompons qui pendent au dessous des palmiers et bambous, de jolis lacs avec les rives élevées plantées d’arbres poussant tout droit et peuplés de cygnes. La route serpente en montant, au tournant il y a une quantité de cerfs de Malacca de couleurs très sombres et avec de belles cornes, qui sont parqués dans un enclos ; plus haut il y a un jardin zoologique où l’on remarque le serpent python avec sa peau sombre enroulé dans sa cage, divers serpents très venimeux de couleur verte et originaire du pays, des singes de toutes sortes, un immense orang-outan de Bornéo tout poilu, avec sa tête et son ventre énormes, ses bras disproportionnés blotti dans son coin et se précipitant vers vous aussitôt que vous le tracassez avec une canne, il est réellement terrible et dégoûtant, vis-à-vis il y a des oiseaux différents, ibis, pélicans, coqs de Java, avec ses plumes de toutes les couleurs, chats-tigres, une bande de singe dans leur cage, que des matelots s’amusent à saoûler avec de la bière et à se tordre de rire. Sur la route, au retour, nous nous sommes arrêtés dans une petite échoppe et avons fait éplucher des ananas très sucrés qui a étanché la soif, car il faisait chaud. J’ai continué jusqu’au Lawada où j’ai laissé mes compagnons et suis retourné à l’hôtel. Ce soir là, Mr & Mme Marriott sont venus dîner ici et j’ai fait un brin de cour à Madame pendant que Monsieur faisait sa partie de billard avec le capitaine Smith. Ce dernier est un homme très bien et de bonnes manières, il est très bien habillé tout de noir, maigre, avec une petite moustache et des favoris, il cause bien et fait tout ce qui lui est possible pour plaire à ses passagers. Le « chief » ou chief officer me botte plus, c’est un gros gaillard blond avec une petite moustache, l’air franc et ouvert, un vrai Scotchman qui vient d’une petite île à l’est de l’Ecosse. Un des passagers, un roux qui m’a acheté mes peaux de tigre et de léopard a fait une forte acquisition de fauteuils de toutes sortes, ils sont jolis et coûtent peu de chose. J’ai rencontré l’Honorable Cox de Maurice hier, au moment où il rentrait au club, il m’a invité à dîner pour demain.

J’ai aussi vu le capitaine Crawford à l’hôtel, il était en train de dîner avec un Mr. Sibbons, après dîner nous avons été ensemble faire une partie de billard au Singapore Club, puis nous avons été écouter la musique dans un hôtel, et faire un tour de danse. Dans une grande salle remplie de petites tables, il y a au fond une estrade sur laquelle sont perchées des Autrichiennes et des musiciens jouant au violon et à la grosse caisse, cela fait un bouzin infernal ; nous avons englouti force whiskys et sodas, et sommes rentrés assez tard. Mr. Crawford a beaucoup vieilli, et a l’air malheureux, il aime bien Singapore où il est depuis six ans. Il y a plus de mouvements ici, et la colonie est plus importante.

J’ai été dans l’après-midi faire une promenade au « tank » qui est à 5 miles d’ici c’est une belle pièce d’eau séparée par une digue et formée de plusieurs bassins qui finissent dans un entonnoir. De l’autre côté il y a une forêt qui contient de beaux arbres. Il y en a de plus de 10 pieds de haut, droits comme une flèche, la végétation est superbe, il y a quantité de lianes, des orchidées énormes qui filent tout droit le long des arbres et des lianes de toutes sortes, c’est très beau, j’ai suivi une longue route à travers la forêt qui mène à la campagne qui est couverte d’herbes et de collines. La route est fort jolie, la végétation superbe et la population gaie et travailleuse. Il y a de grands jardins, des plantations d’ananas, de jolis vergers.
Dimanche le 4 Février /94. Singapore.

J’ai été ce soir dîner chez Mr. Cox à Patterson Road N°. 2. Il a une belle maison bien aérée avec une immense varangue à l’étage, la salle à manger est aussi à l’étage ; il m’a très bien reçu et a donné du champagne et un excellent repas. Leur salon ainsi que la salle à manger sont simplement meublés et les portes élevées et larges, sa fille aînée est très bien, une jolie brune, ses trois autresfilles sont aussi gentilles, mais l’aînée est plus agréable, nous avons parlé un peu de Maurice. Il y a 3 juges à Singapore et 1 à Penang. Ils ne jugent que seuls et pour les appels ils se rencontrent à certains moments, Mr. Cox et son brother-judge partent le 4 Avril pour Penang tenir la cour d’appel et ils y seront une douzaine de jours. La place du juge est plusfatigante ici, ils n’ont pas du tout de vacances. Il a comme secrétaire Mr. Rodesse, un Mauricien qui est arrivé ici avec Mr. Pellereau. Il forme partie, comme membre honoraire, de tous les clubs, le Singapore Cricket Club, le Dancing Club, le Yacht Club, le Racing Club, etc. Il n’est membre actif que du Singapore Club, qui est un beau club entre le bureau de la Poste et celui du Harbour Master.

Lundi le 5 Mars /94.

Je suis à bord du « Rohila » depuis 5 ½ jours en route pour Hong Kong. N’ayant pas été à Batavia je me suis décidé d’aller à Hong Kong. J’ai lunché avec le capitaine Crawford, qui m’a baladé dans le port dans son petit vapeur ; après avoir réglé mon compte à l’ hôtel de l’Europe à Rs. 4 par jour pour 5 jours, j’ai été rejoindre mon aimable capitaine au Wharf, son « tag » est très gentil, il est tout en teck, très long avec une galerie autour, et des fauteuils à l’avant. Nous avons été à une petite île en face du port et tout près du P & O Wharf. Il m’a fait voir son établissement de marine, où il était en train d’installer un générateur. Il a un petit établissement avec des tours, marteaux à vapeur, etc., et un quartier-maître, et trois ouvriers créoles de Maurice, ils étaient en train de préparer de l’asbestose et du ciment pour mettre entre le générateur et le bois comme anti-conducteur de chaleur. Les ouvriers sont malais et chinois.

Samedi le 10 Mars /94.

Nous avons fait un voyage très agréable tout le temps depuis le départ de Singapore. La mer a été calme et à part un peu de chaleur les premiers jours, le temps superbe. Depuis 6 h. du soir lundi à midi mardi nous avons fait 202 nœuds, 280 mercredi, 286 jeudi, 299 vendredi ; aujourd’hui le temps est à la pluie et la mer très houleuse, le bateau en fendant l’eau fait une écume énorme qui jaillit jusque sur le pont. Le Rohilla est un joli bateau, il est très long quoique assez étroit. Le pont supérieur prend presque toute la logueur du bateau, et l’on peut faire une longue promenade. Les premières sont spacieuses et pleines de monde. Lord Sutherland et sa femme sont des passagers pour Hong Kong, il y a beaucoup de monde et ils sont tous très corrects. Une jeune fille avec les joues rouges et fraîches, un petit corsage bien pris à la taille et une jupe en drille avec poches, un petit chapeau de paille sur le sommet des cheveux, passe et repasse souvent près des secondes. Les passagers des 1ères viennent souvent de notre côté parce qu’on y sent moins les mouvements du bateau. On passe son temps à jouer aux quoits, avec « buckets » ou avec des lignes ou cercles marqués à la chaux. Nous avons en 2nde un missionnaire qui arrive de Assam avec sa femme, son enfant et ses parents. Il est méthodiste américain et a fait beaucoup de prosélytes là où il était établi ; il était le premier à coloniser Assam et à apprendre la langue du pays. Il passe en Chine pour visiter ses co-religionnaires avant de rentrer en Amérique.

Les autres passagers de seconde sont Miss Margaret Cuthberson qui va rejoindre William Taylor son fiancé qui travaille dans un établissement de marine à Shan-Haï, son frère l’a accompagnée d’Ecosse à Londres où elle l’a laissé sur l’Australasia, et elle a changé de bateau à Colombo, c’est une Ecossaise, blonde, avec un accent très prononcé, une bonne et brave fille, blonde avec les joues rouges, elle porte un grand pardessus écossais et une grande pélerine en gros tweed pardessus. Catchpole, un comique très réussi, qui passe son temps à éternuer pour effrayer les gens et à dire « Horrible your Worship » occupe la même cabine que moi ; il a une grosse figure joviale entièrement rasée, un costume de serge bleu à large col, et passe sa journée à dormir. Southwood et Smith, deux autres Anglais sont dans la cabine vis-à-vis, ils sont tous les deux complètement rasés. Cairncross, un autre Ecossais à barbe, un vieux monsieur à figure rouge, habitent tous les deux dans la même cabine, ils arrivent d’Angleterre où ils étaient en congé. Hedrick, un Ecossais qui descend à Hong Kong où il espère trouver à s’occuper comme mécanicien, est mon voisin de table. Les journées se passent à manger dans la petite sallze de 2nde où l’on est un peu à l’étroit, à lire et à jouer aux « quoits » sur le pont. Un petit garçon qui voyage en 1ère fait la joie de tout le monde, il est gai comme un pinson et gambade partout, il joue un peu avec nous. Les premières sont grandes et excessivement longues, nous nous promenons sur toute la longueur. Les domestiques de nos 2ndes sont des portugais de Goa, le chef steward, un Anglais, ainsi que les stewardess. Les officiers et le capitaine ne sont pas communicatifs, ils ne fréquentent que les premières, on les voit faire leur quart sur la dunette, au dessus de nous, et prendre le point. Nous avons plusieurs chinois comme compagnons de voyage, ils sont là avec femmes et enfants. Ils sont très tranquilles et ne sont pas du tout désagréables. Leurs femmes sont très gaies et ces dames s’amusent avec les mioches qui ont la tête rasée, des bonnets en laine de toutes les couleurs et des costumes voyants avec des bretelles. Ces chinois sont habillés de blanc, un costume très large, pendant le voyage, et à l’arrivée du bateau ils ont installé le pantalon serré attaché au bas et sans fond pardessus leur culotte, puis une large calotte pendant derrière la tête et attachée autour du cou. La nourriture des secondes est simple et moins fatigante que celle des premières, on déjeune à 8 ½ h., dîner à 1 ½ h et thé à 6 ½, plus une tasse de thé et des biscuits à 4 h et fromage à 9 h p.m. Il y a pas mal de passagers de pont, ils sont tous installés pêle-mêle avec leurs bagages sur le pont au dessus et cuisent leurs propres repas sur le pont. En approchant de Hong Kong aujourd’hui, nous avons vu plusieurs jonques chinoises en pleine mer, ils sont toujours à deux, ce sont de grands bateaux à voiles carrées avec l’arrière élevé contenant une cabine dans laquelle loge toute une famille, ils pêchent tous, et font sécher leur poisson avant d’entrer au port.

Lundi le 12 Mars /94. Hong Kong.

Le port est très joli, la ville est placée sur une colline ou plutôt plusieurs collines qui forment l’île. La ville elle-même est sur le plateau au bas, elle est assez grande et les maisons sont très élevées et les rues étroites mais excessivement propres. Les bâtiments sont en briques couverts de tuiles, ils sont excessivement élevés, avec balcons, et colonnes au rez de chaussée et étages, le Hong Kong Hotel est à sept étages et il est sur le port vis à vis le « ferry-boat wharf » ; la ville semble de loin un immense colombier avec ses maisons à plusieurs étages et à balcons et colonnes, quelques maisons sont perchées sur le bas de la colline. Hier je suis descendu avec Miss Maggy Cuthbertson que j’ai accompagné jusqu’au P & O office où elle avait un télégram que lui adressait son fiancé. Après cela nous avons été ensemble à l’Eglise à 11 heures, puis nous avons monté un peu sur la colline près de l’Eglise protestante, où la route monte en serpentant et est bordée de fougères de toutes sortes, de jolies fougères arborescente, des philodendrons, des fougères à fleurs rouges comme nous en avons au bord de la rivière au Mesnil, polipotes, etc., c’est charmant. En montant, vis à vis le « Clock Tower », nous avons rencontré des marchands de fleurs qui nous ont assaillis avec leurs roses « thé » en bouton et leurs fleurs de toutes sortes, nous en avions les narines parfumées. J’ai offert à Miss Margaret un paquet de boutons et après la promenade sommes retournés tiffiner à l’hôtel puis nous avons été dans le petit chemin de fer funiculaire jusqu’au sommet du Peak. Ce petit chemin de fer part et retourne tous les quarts d’heure, il est travaillé par une chaîne qui marche sur des roulettes, et il gravit quelquefois presque perpendiculairerment, les arbres et les maisons semblent tout drôle à mesure que l’on monte les arbres grimpent aussi et les maisons sont tout à fait penchées. La colline est complètement dénudée au sommet. A droite se trouve le mât de signaux et un petit observatoire. Les gares sont petites et faites sur le plan incliné. On débarque tout près du Peak Hotel, à gauche, et en montant on arrive au Mount Road Hotel qui est très grand et à pic. De là-haut, la ville semble un amas de petits carrés régulièrement taillés. Vis à vis, sur la terre ferme, il y a toute une ville et des wharfs où le P & O et autres vapeurs vont bord à quai. La rade est immense et jonchée de navires, je jonques et de petits « tugs » qui sillonnent dans tous les sens ; il y a aussi beaucoup de bouées, la port prend toute la distance entre l’île et le continent et il est très long. Vis à vis le pays est montagneux et les crêtes qui descendent vers la mer sont rouges et nues. J’arrive maintenant 3 h 15 d’une longue promenade en dehors de la ville. J’ai suivi le long de la montagne la rangée de bungalows pour plus de deux miles. Les routes sont stuquées et propres, tout le long il y a au bord des fougères et des arbustes, sur les balustrades à étages, le long des perrons il y a des pots de fleurs de toutes sortes, les arbustes en fleurs et odorantes, des chalets gracieux avec des dalots[19] en terre grise en forme de bambous, toute la montagne plantée à une certaine hauteur avec des pins de Chine, l’air est pur et frais, la promenade charmante, en montant derrière l’église « St-John », il y a les casernes, les hommes étaient à faire l’exercice au fusil quand j’ai passé là. Un peu plus haut que l’église est le Victoria Terminus du chemin de fer. Au bout de la promenade et surplombant de jolis chalets qui contiennent des cours de tennis, je me suis arrêté, et assis sur un banc, j’ai eu une jolie vue sur la mer et du bas de la ville. Tout est tranquille, propre, gai et ensoleillé là, et le port ressemble à un grand lac, sillonné de petits vapeurs qui s’entrecroisent. C’est tout à fait différent de la vue que l’on a du « Peak » ; sur le versant opposé, où il y a une agglomération de petites îles, à perte de vue sur l’horizon.

La Rohilla est partie à 4 heures ce soir pour Shang Haï, avec la plupart des passagers ; j’ai été à bord dire adieu à mes compagnons, et après avoir laissé ma chaise longue au « godown » j’ai été faire un tour de l’endroit commercial, dans une baie de l’autre côté du débarcadaire. Il y a là une usine travaillée par les « pig-tails » et c’est un village chinois où il y a des chantiers de marine. En sortant du débarcadaire on traverse les casernes qui sont assez grandes, l’hôtel Kowloon où il y a des azalées et autres fleurs dans des pots, des œillets de Chine magnifiques ; la promenade est longue et jolie tout le long de la côte. La ville est entièrement chinoise, de grandes maisons à étage avec écriteaux de toutes sortes, des fleurs, des orangers en rapport dans des pots sur les fenêtres.

Mardi le 20 Mars /94.

J’ai vu tout ce qu’il y avait d’intéressant à Hong Kong, le lendemain du départ du Rohilla Mr. Edward Ackroyd, le second juge de Hong Kong, et Dr. John Bell m’ont fait visiter l’hôtel, (Windsor Hotel), le lendemain j’ai vu Mr. Ackroyd à son bureau, qui s’est empressé de me rendre le séjour ici agréable. Il m’a fait inscrire au Club où l’on rencontre tous les journaux possibles, et où il y a une magnifique librairie à l’étage. Nous avons tiffiné ensemble à une heure ; le club est très beau ; il est en face du Palais de Justice, dans Quenn’s Road.

Vendredi 23 Mars /94.

A bord du « Sydney », bateau des Messageries Maritimes, je suis parti de Hong Kong le 21 après-midi après un séjour de neuf jours, j’ai passé tout ce temps à Windsor Hotel, au coin du Queen’s Road et Ice House Street. J’ai dîné une fois chez Mr. Ackroyd où j’ai rencontré le jeune Edwards, un jeune officier de marine qui est né à Maurice. Deux fois j’ai dîné chez John Bell qui habite une maison sur la colline derrière le « Naval Hospital », il occupe, avec deux autres amis, des officiers de l’armée, une série de chambres, dans un grand bloc de maisons. Les chambres sont grandes et commodes, seulement la maison est tout à fait au sommet de la colline et il faut faire un bon bout de chemin en montant. Mr Ackroyd habite avec sa femme, N° 2, Windsor Terrace. Le bureau de Bell est au N° 9 dans le Praya qui est la rue en face du débarcadaire. Samedi le 16, je suis parti à 8 heures du matin à bord du Powan pour Canton. Je me suis embarqué au Canton & Macao Dock. Le Powan est un bateau de rivière avec de grandes cabines sur le pont, une belle salle à manger au milieu et un emménagement énorme pour les passagers d’entre-pont, ce bateau fait principalement le transport de passagers régulièrement de Hong Kong à Canton 3 ou 4 fois par semaine, il peut porter jusqu’à 1.500 passagers ; il prend aussi du poisson frais de Canton, ce bateau est excessivement commode à cause de la largeur et de la place qu’il y a pour circuler, c’est un bateau de rivière qui ne tire pas assez d’eau pour tenir la grosse mer. Nous avons mis neuf heures pour faire le voyage, et arrivés à Canton à 5 heures p.m. samedi, nous en sommes repartis à 10 h. a.m. le lundi, ce qui a fait que nous avons pu visiter toute la ville dans la journée de dimanche. Canton est la ville commerciale de la Chine. Il y a là beaucoup de fabriques et de magasins de toute sorte. La vue de Hong-Kong est assez intéressante. On voit beaucoup d’îles de toutes les grandeurs pendant le parcours. Celles qui sont à l’embouchure de la rivière sont défendues avec des canons, la crête de la montagne est plantée d’une ligne d’arbres, la colline nue, et l’on voit des trouées dans la montagne pour cacher les canons. Ces forts sont sous la surveillance de mandarins. La mer est jonchée de bateaux et jonques de toutes sortes avec leur arrière large et élevé, qui contient les chambres où vivent le batelier et toute sa famille ; la voile est grande et carrée et il y a une longue flamme au bout du mât. On en rencontre de toutes les grandeurs aussi bien dans la rivière qu’en pleine mer, ces bateaux sont vernis et tous en bois. Les rives de la rivière sont plates, avec des montagnes au loin. Tout le long, il y a des plantations de riz. Quelquefois la rivière bifurque et l’on est étonné de voir des jonques, pour ainsi dire dans les terres. On rencontre aussi quelquefois des vapeurs de petit tonnage qui descendent la rivière, ainsi que des croiseurs chinois, mais petits. A l’entrée de Canton l’on voit absolument de grandes maisons flottantes, peintes de toutes les couleurs. Elles sont contre la rive et changent rarement de position. Les petits bateaux sont ordinairement recouverts de trois toits en osier superposés et finissant en pointe ; ils sont manœuvrés par une longue rame attachée à l’arrière et dont le bout est attaché par une corde au fond du bateau ; quelques tout petits enfants et des femmes font marcher ces bateaux ; comme ces gens vivent et meurent sur leurs bateaux, les enfants sont toujours à bord, et quand ils sont tout petits la mère les attache avec une bretelle de couleur derrière leur dos, ou avec une ficelle fixée au haut de la couverture. Le soir tous ces petits bateaux se mettent en demi-cercle près du débarcadère et alors ils font leur feu et cuisent leur dîner ; il y en a qui vont et viennent avec des mets préparés, et qui chantent tout le temps qu’ils dirigent leur bateau. Les femmes surtout ont un mouvement rythmique de danse sur le banc où elles se tiennent pour faire aller le bateau. Les bateaux de la douane avec leur pavillon jaune contenant le dragon qui veut avaler le soleil, et leur équipage de chinois habillés comme des policemen et jouant à une espèce de cartes marquées comme des domino passent et repassent sur la rivière, quelquefois avec un chef européen.

Le voyage de Canton coûte 5 dollars et autant pour le retour ; il y a en tout 90 miles de route. On traverse Wampou avant d’arriver à destination. Cette ville est petite, il n’y a là que quelques navires chinois, et des tombes sur la colline, un bureau de douane et quelques bâtiments. Ce qui vous frappe à l’approche de Canton est l’église catholique qui est superbe avec ses deux immenses clochers et sa masse énorme. Elle a été construite à grands frais par un évêque pendant le règne de Napoléon III ; le nombre de chrétiens à Canton est trop petit pour une aussi grande église. Dans la ville et à l’approche il y a de grandes pagodes qui sont toutes droites et à plusieurs étages, elles se voient de loin. De distance en distance dans la ville on voit de gros blocs de bâtiments carrés et en pierres, qui sont des endroits de sureté où l’on consigne des marchandises pour être gardées ou en gage. Ils sont à 7 et 8 étages et à l’abri du feu, il y a là toutes sortes de marchandises. La ville à 6 miles de circonférence et les boutiques et maisons quoique très nombreuses n’offrent aucune curiosité d’architecture. La couleur de la rivière est très foncée à l’embouchure et jaunit au fur et à mesure que l’on s’approche de Canton. La ville est noire, et le ciel autour très sombre. La ville s’étend plus sur la rive gauche, ou a droite en montant ; là sont les quartiers anglais et le quartier français concédés après la guerre de 1857, où les deux nations alliées ont rançonné fortement cette ville.

Le soir de notre arrivée j’ai pris un guide qui m’a fait traversé plusieurs rues. J’ai vu fabriquer des bijoux chinois sur lesquels sont collés ou incrustés des morceaux de plumes bleues provenant de perroquets, ce travail se fait à l’aide d’un petit bâton pointu aux deux bouts avec lequel ils prennent chaque petit morceau de plume qui est posé sur le bijou. Dans une autre boutique on peignait sur du papier de riz, des gravures de toutes sorte. Les rues de la ville sont étroites et les maisons élevées, le pavage est large, et la devanture des boutiques surchargée de planches peintes, étroites, sur lesquelles il y a de l’écriture chinoise. Les boutiques sont parfaitement achalandées de marchandises de toutes sortes, d’immenses sacs de riz et autres grains ouverts et exposés en vente. De jolis comptoirs de bois sculptés représentant des arbres et des oiseaux, de gros morceaux de porc rôti, des jambons, des cuisses de canard et des canards rôtis, des rats desséchés, des légumes et morceaux de cannes, des rôtissoires sur lesquelles on cuit des mets de toute sorte, que l’on vend par bols aux passants ; des friandises et noix rôties, de tout cela sort une odeur qui n’est pas désagréable dans certains endroits.
Nuwara Eliya, Ceylan, le 4 Avril /94.

Je suis parti de Hong-Kong le 21 mars à midi, à bord du « Sydney » de la ligne Messageries Maritimes, en même temps que le « Empress of Japan » partait pour le Japon avec Mr. Robinson, le gouverneur actuel et les missionnaires du « Rohilla ». Après avoir réglé mon compte avec le vieil Allemand, directeur de l’hôtel, j’ai pris un « sampan » pour le bord. J’avais laissé mon fauteuil au Dock à Kowloon et j’ai pris un autre « sampan » à voile pour l’y aller chercher ; en retournant le mât du bateau a pris dans l’ancre et s’est cassé au ras, ce qui a beaucoup effrayé les petits chinois à bord. J’ai pris mon billet le jour du départ du paquebot à 10 heures, et j’ai eu la chance d’avoir une bonne cabine vide et à quatre couchettes, les trois autres n’étaient réservées qu’à partir de Singapore. C’était heureux, car d’autres passagers de Saïgon et Singapore ont eu à se loger comme ils pouvaient.

Le Sydney est un joli bateau avec un beau salon de 1ère et beaucoup d’espace, mais le pont était plus ou moins bloqué avec les fauteuils en osier de toutes sortes, ce qui barrait un peu la circulation. Le capitaine ne se faisait guère remarquer, c’est un homme très aimable qui restait tout le temps allongé sur son fauteuil près de sa cabine. Le docteur est très fort sur le piano et se faisait entendre tous les soirs. Nous avons à bord comme passagers des Anglais, des Français et des Espagnols. J’ai pris un passage de 2nde et me suis très bien trouvé, j’étais au bout d’une des tables et avais pour vis à vis Mr. Doulin, un jeune mécanicien sur un bateau de Hong-Kong, et il retournait en France, il n’était pas très aristocrate, j’avais pour voisine la femme d’un inspecteur de police français, une bonne grosse brune, mais qui a filé à l’autre bout de la table près de l’officier qui tenait la table arrivé à Saïgon. Je n’ai pas perdu à l’échange car j’ai eu alors pour voisin

un breton très avenant, Mr. Vaissier, un bon compagnon qui m’a beaucoup parlé de la Cochin Chine qu’il a habité 5 ans. Nous étions alors une bande de messieurs et il y avait un peu de gaieté.

———-ooooooooooooo———-[1] Les « mutton chops » sont des côtelettes d’agneau ou de mouton.

[2] Le goni est un sac en fibre végétale.

[3] Le « voune » est un végétal pouvant ressembler à du rottin.

[4] La varangue, terme maritime, est une véranda.

[5] Il s’agit de la Compagnie des Messageries Maritimes.

[6] Ceylan est le Sri Lanka actuel.

[7] Les bringelles sont des aubergines.

[8] Il s’agit d’un réservoir.

[9] Le poutou est un chignon.

[10] Le type dans cette expression signifie la personne, l’individu.

[11] Le train postal.

[12] Il s’agit de la canne à sucre.

[13] Tissus en toile de jute servant fréquemment à fabriquer des sacs pour le transport de divers marchandises.

[14] Champ de course.

[15] Tsar.

[16] Veste.

[17] Long tissus enveloppant le bas du corps et une partie des membres inférieurs.

[18] Monsieur indien et plus ou moins surveillant.

[19] Des gouttières.


ENGLISH VERSION

EDGAR de CHAZAL(1867-1935)

MY DIARY

SATURDAY 16TH DECEMBER 1893. I left Mauritius yesterday with René for a short pleasure trip in India[i] where I hope to see something of the country. It is my first sea voyage of any consequence. I have bought my return ticket to Colombo, from where I will set off for Madras[ii] and from there I will decide my itinerary.

We left the port at 6 o’clock after the departure of the last train which took my father, my mother, André, Alix and Mark to Vacoa, there was a swell, and we were a little upset by the parting. We were immediately sat at table, and after dinner we went on deck with Aga Hassan whom we befriended, to see the beam of the lighthouse and the lights of the town, we chatted until ten o’clock, Aga Hassan is a very agreeable man, we would never have had so much fun without him. The officers on board are not very sociable, they take us for foreigners and hardly speak to us. We breakfast at nine, lunch at one and dine at six, tea,etc., the food is not the best, whereas the service is done well by Indians in cabaye[CCdeC1] with blue and white turbans. The captain is a hopeless individual, a rough hooligan, with whom we will have little contact.

FRIDAY 17TH SEPTEMBER 1893 I take up my diary again today, at the Buckingham Hotel in Madras. The whole voyage, since the last date, I have written to my father, from the different places we have been. It will be rather disjointed, but I now resolve to write it as I go along and hope to keep to my promise.

The weather has been splendid for the whole time, from Mauritius to Colombo; we only had just a little rain before our arrival at this last port. We had as a fellow traveller, Mr Dangerfield who is a commercial traveller who is selling galvanised sheet metal throughout India. He is excessively full of himself and to give himself extra importance he says that at one time he intended to stand as a member of Parliament. Aga Hassam, with whom we were very friendly on our departure form Mauritius, cooled a little, but we have left each other on very good terms, There was a possibility of a voyage with him to Baghdad, but since then I have just about renounced the idea of this trip. We will see each other in Bombay. The Warora is a good ship for the traveller, the deck is in the centre of the ship and we do not feel and rolling motion. We met absolutely nothing until the Maldives which we passed very close.

The fare aboard was somewhat monotonous, always mutton chops, potatoes, toast and tea. Service and Kitchen staff are Indians and come from south of Bombay, They are not as good as those from Madras who are better cooks and give very good service[iii].The servants where I have been so far have white clothing and turbans that differ in different places; on the B.I. the turban is white with a blue stripe and a blue and white belt draped over the hips, on the French ships they have a tircolore[iv]band across the turban. All the officers are Scots as are the engineers, the crew are Indian, they are more numerous than the ships which have a full European crew.

We have not much to do during the day, we read the French papers, The Encyclopaedic Review and the Literary Review; after dinner we dressed in “Jujamas”[v] and had a chat on the deck, during the day we sometimes had a game of “quoits” with two casks and eight rope coils covered in canvas. There were solely Indians in second class, Vayapooree, the goni merchant and Michael Meek; it seems the “Warora” should have gone to Calcutta, but as they had a large cargo of sugar for Bombay they changed their destination. The telegraph wire having recently been installed in Mauritius, there had been considerable sale of sugar before my departure and the ship had a full cargo. On board I saw that one had to beware of Indian servants; Abbass’s steward came to his room while he was asleep, took the key from under his pillow and was busy helping himself when he woke up.

It took eleven days from Mauritius to Colombo, where we arrived on 26th December[vi] at six in the evening.

Colombo is a beautiful town, the streets are lit by gas and are quite wide. They put red earth on top of the macadam and beat it down with a huge roller. The lighthouse is in the middle of town and has three beams. One sees it from about fifteen miles. The roads are as in Madras lined with trees. All the buildings are in brick covered in plaster and white washed with lime, with arched doors. The first building one sees on disembarking is the Oriental Hotel which has three stories. It is one of the tallest buildings of the town, one sees it from afar, and we went there after disembarking to leave our cases there until our departure for Kandi. Country estates are some way out of town, toward Slave Island. Travel is mainly in a “pousse-pousse” (rickshaw), small two wheeled vehicle with a fan, very sensible and pulled by natives, and they go great distances in these vehicles. The rooms in the Oriental Hotel are large, René and I were on the second floor, our rooms gave onto the road, each has his little balcony separated by a trellis, despite having the awning down it was hot., I suppose it was because we did quite a long walk after dinner; in India one should not go for a walk apart from very early in the morning. This hotel is very expensive, they have a tariff and charge you for each meal, for the room, tea, bath, etc and this comes to a tidy sum. In these hotels one gets a much better rate by the month; we had to pay twelve rupees each for the 24 hours, and they charge only five rupees a day if it is taken for the month.

He dining room is high ceilinged and airy, with a gallery at first floor level below the vaulted roof, large punkas above the tables. There is a long veranda the whole length of the seaward side, everyone lounges in arm chairs and there is much greenery around the columns. After dinner we saw a Mr Painten whom we had met at a tennis party at home, a blond with a bit of a limp, he is here on business. The main thoroughfare is very long, it starts at the dock or the Port Office, passes in front of the Orient, The Bristol hotel, the barracks, and turns at the railway, one passes the barracks and the Colombo Club to get to the Galle Face Hotel, this hotel is on the shoreline; in front there is a long promenade, in stone, with benches, and the road is between the promenade and the Club, in front of which there is a very fine lawn; all this is very fine in the evening, in moonlight. It was to the Galle Face that we came to on returning from Kandi, we were comfortable and only paid six rupees each, but this only by bargaining with the hotelier.

The port of Colombo is formed by a long jetty which terminates in an oval on which stands a lighthouse. The largest steamships have access to the quays, this port seems to be a meeting place for the numerous shipping lines having business interests in the Indies, they get coal here at much better rates than elsewhere, and trans-ship their cargoes. When we disembarked the sea had quite a swell as the wind came in the entrance to the port. It is odd to see the native boats; they are called “catamarans” or something of the sort. They consist of a tree trunk which is attached to another smaller by two triangles; there is a little cabin in the middle in which to sit. This boat holds its’ own in the highest seas and cannot capsize. On our arrival an Austrian boat with many passengers was departing for Calcutta. If we had arrived just a little earlier we could have embarked on it to go to Madras where René was in a hurry to get to because of his work.

Learning that The Eridan of Messrs Marmes line was departing within a few days, we went aboard to reassure ourselves and it is on this ship that we have travelled to get here.

The Singhalese are a race of men gracious in their ways, very effeminate, who wear a long piece of cloth either checked or white round their thighs coming down to their ankles. They tie their hair to the back of the head and comb it with a round comb. Most wear a European coat buttoned up to the neck, many have no covering. The majority shave the chin and upper lip. Instead of a coat some wear a ladies shawl, chequered, so if seen from the back one could take them for women. Nearly all those who have any education become Christians.

The day after arriving in Colombo we took the train to Kandi which is four hours from Colombo. At the terminus we were given excursion tickets for half price because of the Christmas holidays. We holidayed there, in Pondichery and at Madras from 24th to the 2nd January; the coaches are long with half partitions, we travelled in second with civilised natives, with their long coats over the trousers. The whole country for about three hours is more or less flat then one rises gradually to 1400ft. All the time one sees wide paddy fields very green separated by “jungles” with cocoanut palms. From the hills one sees these plantations right down in the valley, sometimes in a semi-circle or in the form of terracing; tea only comes higher up, we saw practically none before the Kandi plateau; we arrived in Kandi after nightfall and went to the Florence Hotel run by a Mr Campbell, right at the end of the lake, on the hill. This hotel is exceedingly well kept, there is an awning over the veranda, supported by huge columns similar to that at the Hotel Buckingham where we were in Madras; the walls are lime washed, the windows varnished and all is clean and glistening, the dinning room is separated from the lounge by a grand arch. We have a large window with a spring loaded blind which gives onto the mountain. At dinner we met a man, who had done a tour of the cities of India and had taken photographs in the places he had been,
He spoke at length with René about expose times when taking photographs—in hundredths of a second—he took some views of the garden with us. The next day early, we went to the “garden of plants”; we went through really charming countryside where the vegetation was really superb, all along the road were native houses covered in tiles with an open veranda in front; the population of Ceylon is Buddhist, there are also many Roman Catholics, we met several young Singhalese catholic students, with black robes and red sashes. The catholic religion suits the natives better; the ceremonies touch their spirit more. In India missionaries wear mainly white robes with a black tricorne hat; they have been established in Ceylon for many years and do a lot of proselytising.

GARDENS OF KANDI This garden is very pretty, it is not as well kept as that of Pamplemousse in Mauritius which has a bigger variety of plants and is more charming, but here the vegetation is thicker, the trees magnificent with spacious lawns; I saw some fine specimen of fern, caladiums, anthurium, etc. The fern collection is under a rotunda covered by a roof made of coco string rope to mitigate the force of the rain. At the entrance the trees are covered with vines in flower like the ipomehma, a little further one sees a superb muscat grape vines, and a stand of bamboo palms, which here they call “The Mauritius Palm”; we took photos of two magnificent India Rubber trees with huge roots in the shape of blades that come right down to the path. The bamboo stands are superb, they are separated one from another, each one isolated, and it is great to see the plumes of leaves rise towards the sky. The Singapore palm is a very fine tree which has huge leaves like the “latanier” and which dies after flowering, another type of palm or pandanus has flowers in the shape of corkscrews, that is to say that the leaves are tight up against each other and twist round the trunk. There is a good looking lake or rather the river is wide on one side, where there is a fine lawn surrounded by trees; the river surrounds the garden on three sides which has an area of 150 arpents. The paths are covered in fine white gravel, a type of marble or granite. On our return, to the right of the garden we saw a bush covered in beautiful pink flowers touched with yellow at the tip, they seemed like the flower of an orchid.

We also visited, after leaving the Peredenya Gardens, a tea factory.

KANDI —-CEYLON

This is how one sets oneself up to make this drink. Women pick the leaves and put them in big baskets; the leaves are put to dry in a room with shelves, they are spread on the inclined raised platforms separated by blocks. The room is closed up and a metal wheel is set up at one end on the room so as to establish a draft. After 24 hours the leaves are thrown to the floor from where they are transferred to a grinder where they go through rollers and are crushed, from which they are passed through a hot-air box, and the tea is made To separate the smaller leaves, or the best, from the larger, they are passed through a steam operated sieve or winnower and it is separated into four qualities.

Colombo: We left Colombo on Friday 29th December at midday on board the

Eridan, a ship of the Mess. Maritimes Line. We travelled with Mr George Russel, a high government official who was going to Madras, many Americans and a Turk. The doctor is a little hunchback who was very pleasant; the second officer was in charge of the ship, the captain being ill in Colombo. The cooking was excellent and the change of food very welcome. We disembarked at Podichéry on Sunday night in beating rain, and went to the Hotel de Paris, run by a native who gave us a ghastly dinner; we met some Scots there who stayed up to see in the New Year, on the stroke of midnight they kicked up a racket by singing “Auld Lang Sign”[vii]. In the morning we did a tour of the town. All the principle buildings are on the coast, which is almost straight, there is no harbour, only a jetty, the boats are manned by natives, almost nude, complete savages, their oars are made with a pole at the end of which they tie a round piece of wood.

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Monday 1st January 1894 Madras looks rather sad when on enters port. The buildings are in red brick, granite and stone; all this is red with dust and gives it an uncared –for look. The best looking building is the High Court of Justice, which has many domes and pointed roofs. On arriving we went to the Empress Hotel run by a native, the next day

Tuesday 2nd January we went to Buckingham Hotel Parapet. We saw Moubray[CCdeC2] who had just arrived at Binny & Co on the scheduled service[viii]

3,4,5,6,7, & 8th January 1894. We stayed in Madras, nearly every morning we went to meet Moubray and did a little pleasure walk with him. In the evening we went to the Marina where all the best people of the area went to meet each other. Life is quite expensive in Madras, one cannot go out on foot and cars cost a lot, and the hotelfromRs120 to Rs150, with Rs.300 per month one could just manage. I left Madras on the 8th January on the 6pm train for Hydrabad, after saying goodbye to René. From Madras to Hyderabad there is nothing of interest to be seen in the way of countryside; all the area near the town is waterlogged and rice is planted, the next day I found that I was in a completely different country, the soil is very sandy, and the countryside very flat, one just about see, here and there, a denuded hillock, and one sees plantings of Indian wheat, oats, linseed, etc, as far as the eye can see.

The railway is very convenient, it was cool and I slept well, we had supper at Arkonam, lunch at Guntakal junction, early evening meal at Nadi and I arrived in the evening of the 9th at Secunderabad, where I went to the Decaen Hotel, after visiting the Golconde tower, the king’s tombs, the Fuluknama, chateau of the first minister son of Sir Salar Jung Bahadoor on the hill, the town of Hydrabad, the lake, the home of Mr Powden. I left on 4th January at 10 in he evening for Bombay.

12th January. Arrived at Poona at 01.10 in the morning, I set myself up at The Napier Hotel from where I will leave tonight at 10 for Bombay. This morning I went to the mosque of Parbati on the mountain, from where I have come at midday for lunch, the heat was atrocious and I much appreciated my bath. I am now going to see a bit of the town.

Bombay 17th January 1894. The route to follow from Bombay to Calcutta via Ahmedabad: Aboo Road, Jeypoor, Rewari, Ferezopore, Lahore, Umritgar, Saharanpur, Delhi, Agra, Cawnpore, Lucknow. Benares, Calcutta. B.B &C.I Ry Colaba Station 9.30pm. Ahmedabad 9.50am. Aboo Road 3.58pm. Jeypoor 5.15am. dep.Rewari 12.15pm. N.W Ry. Ferezopore. 4pm. Raewing Jn. 5.42. Lahore 7.10pm, dep3.35pm Amritsar 4.54pm. Saharanpur 2.37am. Delhi 07.50am Delhi d.11.25am. Agra 12.5pm. B.B & C.I.Ry. Agra 2.04pm. Cawnpore 6.20 Cawnpore 6.45 arrived Allahabad 11.00 and Benares 12.38pm. Benares 1.16pm. Mogul Sarsi 1.42pm dep2.9pm Hawarah (Calcutta) 5.45am.

Ahmedabad Friday 19th January 1894. I left Bombay yesterday after a stay of five days in the town and I arrived here this morning at nine o’clock with Messrs Durfort and Bagneux. Ahmedabad is an old town entirely oriental which has seen days of splendour. It is now a little abandoned although the population is still dense. The town is surrounded by walls and near enough to, seen from Jumna Musjid mosque it seems to cover a large area but is somewhat sad due to the cloth coverings. The town was constructed by The Sultan Ahmed about 500years ago and the tomb of this powerful monarch is in sculptured marble and is to be found in a building in the centre of town, quite close is buried his son and grandson, these mausoleums in marble are very finely sculptured and are covered in large drapes embroidered with gold. Straight after lunch we went to see the Jain temples at the entrance to town. This temple is composed of long buildings on all four sides, over which are a quantity of small domes culminating in points, these buildings which follow each other forming a perfect square contain rooms closed with a grill door through which one can see a seated marble Buddha with crossed feet as are his hands, he has very bright eyes and his mouth is painted pink. On each side there is what appears to be a god; along the whole length there is a row of columns which supports a veranda formed of arches and at the top of the columns there are “dancing girls”, all along this corridor the Jains come to do their obeisance, throwing some grains of rice for the priest. The whole place is paved, in well worked, encrusted, marble. At the entrance to the temple a man made us change our shoes for linen ones; the priest spends his time adorning the idols with flowers and spreading sandalwood incense everywhere. All the windows are made of latticed stonework representing different designs. The Jains are people who respect animals, one sees here are in the whole country many birds of all types, squirrels that climb on the walls and follow the ranks of altars where people have been so as to recover the few grains of rice that they have left to fall; monkeys, grey blue with long tail and a black face come to the very front of the temple and one can give them egg-plant cut into pieces which one can give them by hand when you call them. They are generally in a group of 12 to 15, all the females, some with their young which are very charming, one just need to give them a piece and they sit just there beside the car, the male is much bigger and more wild. From there we went to see several small mosques which we were allowed to enter without removing our shoes. These mosques are entirely made of well cut stone which must have cost something but they are dirty and badly kept. At the side of the tabernacle they have a stone niche which contains burnt oil where the faithful come symbolically to dip their finger which they rub on their eyes.

The town is dirty and the houses more or less in ruins. The tortuous roads are narrow, but what distinguishes the place is their taste for sculpture; the frontages of all the houses are very well sculpted, they hardly know about paint, there are only one or two houses that are painted and that without oil and bright colours as seen in Hyderabad. In the afternoon we went to have a little walk at a water-hole that was a few miles outside town. At the centre there is a small island that is connected to the land by an alleyway; in the middle of this islet there is lovely garden in the centre of which is a kiosk where there is a terrace where one can appreciate the fresh air in the afternoon air, there are flowering bougainvilleas trained into spheres which look very good. We saw below us, with its head above the water, a caiman. It seems that the Jains have obtained a concession from the Government that they will not kill these animals, which they respect, and they have had to put a barrier the whole length of the promenade so they do not get onto it. The tomb of Allam Shah, an old priest of Mahomet’s time, is to be found a little further away, his seven boys are buried close by as is his brother, Mohammedans come there to say prayers. The mausoleum is made of marble and the building is circled in stone latticework. The bazaar is in the middle of town in the main square, where one can see many people who sell clothes of all colours, the country is poor and the people dirty. We were poorly lodged in a room at the station and we hardly slept.

20th January. Left Ahmedabad at 10 in the morning, we dined at Jana, a pleasant little station with a garden and creepers growing up the columns, we arrived here at Jaypoore at five o’clock on the 21st after 18 hours travel. The first class carriages are small and have three couchettes with a open platform giving onto the rails, these carriages are very pleasant in the evening; we sit on a small bench and smoke while bantering in the moonlight. The countryside is nice enough until one gets to about Aboo Road where we arrive at about four in the afternoon. From there everything is dry and desert, there is only white stone and dried out banyan trees, only we do pass between two ranges of hills which really look lovely by moonlight; we saw many stork and teal in the rice fields, quite a few monkeys and some peacocks. We had intended to stop off at Aboo Road and hire ponies to take us up Mount Aboo, but as we saw that the country was so bare we preferred to go on to see other places. All the railway stations in this area are built with domes, whitewashed with lime. The “Bombay and Baroda and Rajpootana State Railway which goes from Ahmedabad is much smaller than other lines.

Jaypoore 21.1.94 We disembarked this morning at 51/2 hrs at Dak Bungalow, an hotel run by the Government for travellers. It is very clean and one is well received, the hotel is full of travellers. We left this morning in a car to attend the Mass, it was very cool, a wonderful temperature. At the church there was only a dozen or so natives on their knees and one English[ix] family, my companions made their devotions and I looked on as an interloper, seeing the priest blessing the wine and genuflecting. The priest was a character with a long beard who finished his sermon in Hindoustani when we arrived. From there we went to see the public a garden in which is the museum. The entrance gate is well made and gilded, the paths are sandy and there are some nice lawns bordered by roses planted in different arrangements. Firstly we saw the

antelopes, deer, stags of all sorts, coming from all parts of India, deer speckled with spots, black deer with white abdomen, the pig[x] stag; then we went by an enclosed basin[xi] containing a whole lot of stones on which there were ———–[xii] with the skin of which they make furs, they have lovely tails and a piercing cry.

There was a collection of cats, a rhinoceros, a cage containing ibis and big white pelican, sultan chicken and ibis of all sizes, a tiger from Rajpootam with markings bigger and wider apart than those of the common tiger, a pair of lions which had been born in Clifton Gardens on 14th January /88, Burmese monkeys with long hair on the upper body and the lower half bare and red, black monkeys, etc, black bears of the country—from there we visited the Victoria Museum or the Institute, the foundation stone of which had been laid by the Prince of Wales in 1869. It is a large building made partly of marble and a white stone resembling marble with Hindu deities on the sides and a central dome. Everywhere in the corridors there are all sorts of paintings on the stonework, Hindu scenes, Christian, Egyptian, a large room containing the Rajahs of Rajpootana who have held the succession since 1400 to the present day with their different court dress and large sabres, all the rooms are in mosaic, and the whole building cost more than five laques of rupees, much was spent on the collections, there is a collection of Indian armour, cups made in the country and elsewhere, in bronze and worked copper, collection of works and gold thread on silk, photographs of the country, in swivelling cases made to fit the columns, collections of extraordinary marine animals made out of glass, a botanical hall with specimens made of cloth and wax in cases against the walls, in fact a whole lot of things all very instructive, what is good is that there are not all curiosities but practical things, for example a collection of local medicines, panels showing how to make wool, perspective views ,etc. On the sandboxes[xiii]mottos were written and a brochure could be bought for 4 annas. From the top of this building one can see the whole surroundings of Jaypoore which is very pretty, it is a large area and in front on the mountain above the Rajaha’s palace one sees “Welcome” written in large letters on the rock, above and on the summit is a fort and other buildings. At three in the afternoon we entered the town which is surrounded by walls like Ahmedabad. At the main gate there is a grand square and then door worked in copper, one is immediately struck by the width of the main road, the cleanliness and the local colour, all the buildings which are sometimes several stories high are painted pink with pictures of flower vases with borders and frills, windows are just big enough to put your head through, and the hindu style predominates. At the centre of town is the Maharaja’s palace. One enters via a large decorated portico painted yellow and one goes through several courtyards to get to the council chamber and banqueting hall, two huge rooms lit by gas. The road is paved

with stone dressed like galvanised sheeting, the doors are tall and entirely covered in copper. The marble council rooms are decorated in beautiful blue and gold designs. The gardens are well laid out; there are large ponds with pipes below for jets of water. There are plantings of orange and guava trees in the courtyards, a fernery, and on the left the Zenana or women’s palace. There we saw a juggler do some really good moves with batons and rings decorated with weights. At the end of the courtyard and separated by a long row of building there is a pond where we saw some caiman.

Jaypoore 22.1.94. I had a long walk with Mr. Durfort yesterday; we went the whole length of the promenade, in moonlight, under the huge trees that lead to the railway; it was relatively cold. This morning we set off for The Ameer Palace, three to four miles from here. The country is dry and the mountains have few trees. All along the road are buildings and tombs in a derelict state. When we arrived at the Ameer Gate we alighted and were photographed on the back of an elephant; we then did the remaining journey on an elephant driven with a long pick by a man dressed in white with a turban which had a long train; the animal was seated so that we could mount by means of a ladder; we were well shaken-up and the route was quite steep; all along there is stone parapet ; we passed close to the Water Palace, two large buildings built in the middle of the lake. There was a crocodile that was basking in the sun and many wild duck. The reflection of the domes on the water was quite pretty, but all this is quite unkempt and is much better in photographs that in its natural state.

The Ameer Palace is on the side of a mountain, The Maharaja only comes here on special occasions and the place is somewhat abandoned, there are many nooks and crannies, the corridors and the Kabar-Mahal in marble, rooms with accoutrements of glass and pieces of bright steel surrounded by decorations of flowers, these rooms are supported by columns with the base in sculpted marble and there are reliefs of vases of flowers on the white walls, the Zenana was pretty with open work on some large area of stone.

In the afternoon we went to the School of Arts which is a place where they teach design, painting, sculpture and pottery as well as working in bronze. Children were set to copying quite complicated designs. One group was set the task of sculpting the god Mahdeo, made of white marble lying on his back with a collar of heads round his neck, while another god, The Destroyer, made from black marble with six arms, stands on his body. At the entrance there were well made statues made from plaster. Upstairs we saw them engraving on bronze. They coat the object in lime and trace with a pencil what has to be done on it and then they scrape it with an engravers point; it is very easy to make all these things in bronze. At the far end there is a shop where all these objects are for sale. There were some fine trays in copper with wooden legs for serving tea, very fine paintings of elephant or horses entangled with women in oriental dress. It is extraordinary how many pigeons there are in town. They all come on to the main square where they are fed with grain. Jaypoore is a town of peacocks, there is a lot of them and they make a hell of a racket at night. Processions

of women dressed in all the colours of the sun go down the road singing to announce a marriage, we saw one, a whole troupe of them with the foremost women carrying trays of food on their heads. One sees in the streets lines of dromedaries carrying provisions; they have a rope through a hole in the nose which is attached to the tail of the one in front. There are also quite a few elephant that walk majestically with bells around their necks. We came across a panther with a hood over its head, led by a man.

In the afternoon we also went to visit the Rahja’s stable where there were Arab, Indian and other horses, all real beauties, they were tied by rope at the ankles front and back to stop them kicking. We got back to Dak Bungalow at five o’clock and after dinner we left for the station to catch the six o’clock train for Delhi, at 91/2 we got to Bandikni Junction and arrived in Delhi at five where it was deliciously cold.

Delhi, 23rd January /94.We are very badly set up here in an annex; all the rooms in the main building have been taken by civil servants, who live here, as well as travellers. We called at all the hotels and could find only this one. One of the hotel staff, of mixed race, offered to be our guide, he is called Collins and says he is a nephew of the tax collector who was in Delhi at the time of the revolt. After dinner we witnessed the Mohammedans doing some very interesting turns, amongst others swallowing swords and extracting stones, string etc. from their stomachs, making a small wolf, tied to a chain, disappear etc. Our first visit was to an old garden belonging to the Rajah of Delhi where the guide showed us the spot where Colonel Nicholson conducted himself so bravely in sustaining fire from a breach that the English had made in the wall, and where they wished to infiltrate into the town. The Colonel was at the forefront of his men, they went down into the ravine and with the aid of a ladder they climbed up the ramp and entered the fort, from there they marched to the main gate which they took and the troops were able to enter the town. The Colonel was killed on the road that follows the walls. These walls are made of very hard rock, very difficult to breach.. In this garden is a mosque in which The king came to pray, it is riddled with bullets and the dome is pieced. The hotel we are in is the residence of Governor Athquit[xiv] (who was massacred before the war[xv]. The place is called Ludlow Palace.

On the day of The Revolt all the British living in the town were massacred in a barbarous manner by their own servants, the last ones left wished to flee by scaling the walls. They were surprised by Indians in the school yard; there was a pond to get across and as they were unable to leave the women behind they tried to cross the pond with them, they lost time and were killed. In the town where the Post Office is was a powder store which was defended by nine Englishmen, the kept to their post for four hours, and the last had no option but o to blow it up, they rebuilt it on the same spot, above the entrance door is a plaque that tells of what happened here. At the entrance to the town there is also a marble plaque between the two gates, on which are the names of those killed and wounded.

The “Mutiny” started in 1857 in May and in Delhi lasted a month and a half, there were 2000 men killed here and all that was achieved was the capture of Shah Jahan the King of Delhi who, seeing that the English were masters of the place, flew from his palace via an underground tunnel to take refuge on the tomb of his father on the banks of the river Jumnal outside the town. The King’s palace is in the fort and has been very well built with tall walls of red stone and is strongly defended. It is all in white marble , there is the throne room, the Zenana, the bath rooms, all this with circular verandas with columns, and entirely of marble from top to bottom with all sorts of encrustations as we;; as gilding. The encrustations were of precious stones, and it was all built by an Italian. During the war the Indians took out all the precious stones of which we now, only see traces; and the English, for the sake of the appearance of the building have replaced them with painted plaster. The palace gives onto the Jumna and the countryside, and there is no wall on that side. There are only cannons in the sub-basement wall. At the side of the palace there is the mosque, also entirely of white marble. This mosque is closed by a door covered in copper and is called the “pearl mosque” because suspended before the altar there was the finest pearl that had ever been seen and it had been stolen. Also stolen was the king’s throne, known as “the peacock throne” which had been decorated with the most rich jewels and were worth enormous sums. The only thing recovered was the royal crown which bore the world’s most beautiful diamond and which is now property of The Queen.[xvi] The revolt came to an end here by the capture of the king, who was taken at his father’s tomb. As he had not been the main agent of the revolt and had taken no part in it, they sent him to finish his days in Rangoon where he passed his days pleasantly with enough money and all his comforts. The two sons who had taken an active part in the revolt were killed by Captain Hutson. This is how the most powerful Indian King, to whom other Kings came to give homage, came to finish his days. At the centre of the fort is The King’s Courtyard, where he meted out justice. His throne is chassed into the wall about eight feet up and is made of marble. Against the wall there are settings of precious stones representing parrots and other birds. The prime Minister stood before him, in the middle of the room on a marble pedestal and the individual who had requests to make on the step outside; one gets to the throne by means of a “private entrance”, through which the prime minister passed when the kings wished to se him. The whole room is in red stone, it is long with columns and the paving in a stone unique to the country, red with flecks which is called “sandstone”. At the entrance to the fort, or the “Lahore Gate” we were saluted by Sikh guards, fine looking men with red turbans, with big overcoats because o the cold. The Sikhs and the gurkas are tribes very faithful t England, Sikhs come mainly from Rajpootana, and the Gurka’s from the mountains. Generally the Hindus are a quieter and more faithful race toward the English than the Muslim, but they are less advanced than they. We went to see the Cathedral outside the town walls. This church which is a massive building with a central dome was built by Colonel Spinna who gave it to the town. A commemorative plaque had been made and placed at ground level in front of the alter and all over the walls are inscriptions on marble dedicated to people who had been massacred during the war.

On some of the plaques one can see a whole series of names of whole families that were killed at the same time. The Juna Masjid, one of the largest mosques in India, is built on a hillock opposite the fort and near the civil hospital, one goes up a large step in the east and west; all around there is a big gallery and row of main alters set quite high, there is a big dome at the centre of two

smaller ones, all in marble, the far end is also in marble with rows of columns in marble. The rooms have squares denoted so that each person should have a designated space is which to pray and standing should be shoulder to shoulder with the next man, the faithful stay in rank to prostrate themselves in the direction of Mecca. On each side of this building there is a minaret about 15 feet high in three parts with a small roof supported by columns, at the top, they are constructed of “sandstone” with panels of marble from top to bottom, it is from there that the priest calls the faithful, and from there that one has a magnificent view over the whole town and its surroundings, the fort in front, to the west the “iron temple, the huge Hindu temple, the old forts, and the tomb of king Humayan, to the south, the town extends to the north, to the east and west, all the houses have balconies and flat roofs, from that height one hears the all the noise of the town, in the north west in the distance the Kitub Minhar throws it’s elongated pointed steeple into the sky and it is the single building in the immensity of the plain, the church, the Lucknow castle, The War Memorial, The Flagstaff are to the east, the countryside is vast and is cut by the sacred river Jumna which crosses from the south

24th January, My two companions left this morning on the 6.20 train for Agra, and I stayed behind so as to be able to withdraw a little money from the National bank of India. After lunch I took a car and went into town, after which I went to the “memorial Building” or Mutiny Memorial, an octagonal tower built on a three tiered platform with galleries, and inscriptions on marble of the names of those who lost their lives during the war, and lists showing the regiments and the numbers of Europeans and natives killed in each., this building and the others I saw are along The Ridge, or circular Road, the country being flat, from the top of this building one can see the town very well. From there to Askar Pillar, which is very old, before J.C>, but is not very interesting, Hindu Rac’s House, which is now used as an hospital, and besides which is a huge reservoir, The flagstaff, a tower superimposed on a larger one and from which one gets a very pretty view; it was very cold and I was obliged to wear my overcoat the whole time. I crossed the road with a Bishop and his secretary that we had met in Jeypoore and here.

Delhi is a large town and there is a lot of movement. We visited a boutique where they made minute objects in ivory, and they paint landscaped and figures on ivory, very beautiful carpets and embroideries. At the entrance to the town near Cashmere Gate there is a big square planted with grass divided into squares, bordered by large trees, principly mins, a tree with a yellowish leaf. One sees many of the trees sacred to the Hindus which looks a bit like the banyan, they say their prayers underneath them and from branches they hang “chatties”, or terracotta pots full of roasted grain or full of water, for their dead, I saw one near the Delhi Gate that was quite big and grew out of a house. The Sikhs soldiers are very fine men, they wear beards and have

uniforms braided with red. Some have a weapon or curved very sharp knife which they keep in their turban with which they can, with ease, slice off a mans’ head from a distance. The population is for the most part Muslim, they

have mosques in all the roads, and that of Jumma Masjid is the most beautiful in all India. Leaving Delhi it stays in sight from some distance. The next day after lunch we visited Ktub Minhar about 11 miles from the town. We passed through Lahore Gate out of town and got out to follow the wall to see an inscription dedicated to Colonel Nicholson marking the spot where he had both legs shot from under him by the enemy as he advanced to take a cannon., following this he died eight days later. On this ancient wall one can walk and do a complete circuit of the town. Along the way we stopped to see the tomb of Sadar Jung, prime minister of the Mogul King, which was his home before his burial. On the road we met people from Kashmir wrapped in their bed covers padded with cotton, their teapots and other household utensils tied round their waists; they had come to sell their furs in Delhi and were returning. They have a sort of Chinese look not altogether pure, and spoke only Hindustanni, there were women among them, they travelled on foot.. We travelled through a countryside made up of tombs, buildings with individual domes some way one form another, containing the remains of the princes of royal blood, all this countryside is only ruins of ancient towns and forts, within some of the old walls the natives have built their huts, in one of the tombs, built on a raised platform they had built a police station (near Ktub). In these little villages where the houses are built with walls made of dung the women collect the cows dung which is produced in quantity because of the numbers of these animals and against all the walls are piled up cowpats which are used instead of firewood, the heat is slow and intense and is much cheaper than firewood. We came across quite a few green parrots, owl eagles and blue parrakeets. In this region they plant rye, gram, cotton, rape ( a plant with a yellow flower that cheers up the countryside) at Ktub Minhar we had tiffin at the State bungalow where they gave us fresh boiled rice and a good curry on the veranda of the hotel which is separated into two buildings made of masonry covered in thatch. There we met the Bishop we had seen in Madras, an Italian who travels with a little seminarist and whom we had met later in Agra, a character with a long beard. The Ktub Minhar is an immense minaret which rises four stores made of sandstone with mouldings along its length and Arabic inscriptions all around, on each floor there is a circular balcony which that follows the walls of the building and which one gets to by climbing 328 steps. At the summit there is a cupola that had been turned upside down by a thunder ball and that had been set up again and placed to one side on a heap of stones. From the top of this building on takes in a immense area of country and one can see the Jumma on the other side of Delhi, it has a welcome cool day, with a small breeze. From the top of this tower the Queen who could not go to the river to wash away her sins in the sacred river could say her prayers while looking upon the Jumna. The good woman belonged to the noble class of Hindu and did not go to the river because it was dangerous to travel in the countryside. At the base of this minaret there were the ruins of a Hindu pagoda with marvellous drawings and sculptures, but they are in red stone and are in a poor state. A series of columns, immense doors damaged by the weather and in the middle of the enclosure a large iron column which is The King’s baton, sign of his power.
On the other side is the tomb of a Muslim priest-saint in marble chiselled in relief all around and above[xvii] and to one side a huge entrance door to the square set with incrustations on red stone. This area was owned by Hindus originally and latterly a place for the Mohammedans who conquered the territory and who covered the place in all these inscriptions from the Koran. A little further we saw some fellows jump from a great height into a well down which we could go by a long series of steps. One saw them jumping from above, through holes made in the wall, the height was more or less 50 to 60 feet and they followed one after the other. To one side are the tombs of the ancient Kings and their Ministers, an area surrounded by lattice work marble walls. From there we went to see the tomb of Humayan, a Mogul King, father of Ackbar, Aurmagzib, Shah Jean and Shah Bahadour. It is a magnificent building raised from the ground, with a big square in front, a huge hall in the centre, a second story and rooms in the corners. The central room where Humayan and his wife are buried is a single hall with windows at first floor level. It is on the banks of the Jumna, there is a surrounding wall and a garden.. Returning to the town we passed the old fort of Delhi where there is a mosque, a very large entrance gate which is at the top of the slope with high walls. It is here that Humayan died, thrown off a balcony. We entered the town by the Delhi-Gate and went by the district where I had a Turkish bath with massage, it was delightful. In a large closed and heated room black men throw hot water over you and pummel you in all directions, then they spay you with cold water then icy water, you then return to the room where you undressed, which is covered in mats, you cover yourself well and go back by car all nice and warm; there were seven or eight of us in the room which is paved in marble and provided with pools of hot water on the wall opposite the door, and a cold shower below. In the room where we get dressed there are canapés and they give you tea, coffee and cigars. While we there a Bishop, from one of the southern provinces, came in and an Italian with a big beard.

Agra 27th January /94 My two companions left the Empress Hotel on the 25th (Ludlow Castle) on the 6.20 train, I caught them up at the Nothbrook Hotel by taking the 3.15 afternoon train, I arrived here at 1 o’clock in the morning. Leaving Delhi I crossed the Jumna on the Iron Bridge, it was necessary to take the train on the opposite platform and cross the rails by the pedestrian bridge, the station master was a big rude man with a strong voice and a huge nose, he had the look of a Jew, he shouted at the coolies who carried parcels on trolleys, I travelled with two Englishmen with whom I didn’t exchange a word. I dined at Aligarh in an hotel owned by a company that also does business in Toondla; the room was quite large and kept going by the English, we waited 20 minutes and my two companions left and were replaced by a man with a big beard who made himself very comfortable for the night, I lit my cigarette and went to sleep still fully dressed and telling them to wake me at Toondla, but they did nothing, and they cared little to see me onto the opposite platform. I changed into a compartment with three couchettes on either side and I did the rest of the journey with two gentlemen and an old lady who wore glasses. We disembarked at Agra fort and a big Mohammedan came to meet me and told me that my friends had arrived at the Nothbrook.

This hotel is rather badly run the kitchens poor and the beds really bad, the room that I have is big and commodious, there is quite a difference from the room in the Empress Hotel in Delhi. Our three rooms are adjoining and at the end of corridor attached to the house. The Duke of Cambridge, his wife and his retinue were here when I arrived and went yesterday. This gentleman is short and limps badly, he wears a black moustache and a big straw hat, his wife is charming. He spent a lot of money here, and the carpet seller in the bazaar in whose shop we were bragged that he had ordered £500 worth of goods from him. I was delighted to see my friends again and the first thing that Durfort asked me is what I had paid our guide Stains in Delhi. He had had a bit of an argument with him when they left; the man had refused to accept Rs6. After dinner, for Rs2, we took a guide who took us firstly to the Fort which is entered by a winding paved street; as in Delhi one has to get a permit to enter, it is here that one can find the king’s palace and the Moti Musjid. This last building is really great, one enters by means of an ornate door with Mogul style cupolas above, the steps are high and the peristyle is very well done, the interior is all in marble as are the domes, the two big cupolas and the series of smaller ones in front, at the far end, the ceiling, the paving stones and the 54 columns and the small row in front are made of marble as well as the interior courtyard, and the pool at the centre of it all, and all this in the very best of taste. The chateau is close by, at the entrance there is the Diwan-i-Kass or the public audience chamber in sandstone and marble with the throne at the at the far end on a platform that gives onto the castle itself, the frontage is encircled by old cannons set on rows in gun-ports. And the yard fenced by a grill; in front there is the tomb of the governor of Agra who died on 9th September /57 after the Mutiny. From there we went to the Aurungzib Palace, the father of Shah Jehan and we visited the apartments of his Hindu wife, this emperor had one Hindu, one Christian and one Mohammedan. The apartment of his Hindu wife is in the same style in red sandstone. From there we saw a series of rooms and then went up to the Zenana. On the ground floor there are also the baths, which are dull; the ceiling is set with mirrored glass. The effect of torch-light was magical. Aurunzib came here to see his wives bathe. At the door we saw paintings on ivory, glass covered medallions showing the royal family, Shah Jehan and Taj Mahal his wife, Ackbar, Aurungzib, Humayan, and their wives etc. The Palace is on the banks and in front of the Taj which is further along the same bank following the river bend. The women’s’ apartments show onto the river, all in marble and overhanging the river, the basements form the ramparts of the fort. We passed successively the cloak room with niches for jewels and the front courtyard, and two little buildings covered in copper, Taj Mahal’s room which is very charming with its mosaics, the marble dome and the balcony, to one side there is the marble court where the king went to see his wives play their game of “cook” (blind-mans-bluff”) on a draughts board at one end. The gallery then gives on a yard where the king watched gymkhanas and elephant fights. Then there was the private audience chamber before which there is a balcony with fine marble columns, from which the women would fish in a pool in the yard which was filled in latter; before this there is a little marble and sandstone mosque beside which is a dungeon where Shah Jehan was held prisoner by his son. All this is in large part in white marble and the women’s quarters is surrounded by marble slabs worked in lattice work On the side on which is the private audience chamber there is a pedestal in black marble where the king meted out death sentences which is set on a large terrace giving onto a large circular yard.

Leaving the fort we crossed the Jumna on a temporary bridge supported on old generators; to cross one had to pay half a rupee we then through a village to arrive at the tomb, a charming little monument in pierced marble composed of a square on which there was a smaller one decorated with cupolas, and towers with cupolas on top at the four corners. Both the exterior and the interior were inset with stones and painted with Arabic script the surroundings having lovely gardens planted with mandarin, tamarind and other trees. This tomb was built by the Taj Mahal for his father who was a Persian first minister of Shah Jehan. In the afternoon we went to visit the Taj which is a mile from the hotel, to get there one goes along a very wide road bordered by mins (that tree with the yellowish leaf again) with bungalows painted pink and roofed with thatch, and squares surrounded by large lawns, with a few trees planted at some distance from each other with bougainvilleas and other flowering vines.. Near the entrance are planted areas surrounded by mud walls with grey earth looking like sand, an old cemetery and a little village, having shops where they sold fashioned and inset objects, in marble. One enters by a double doorway, the outer door is perpendicular and is the principle door. This last door is charming. It is a big block made of red sandstone set at the base with white and black marble, the round ceiling in the middle is painted in a zigzag pattern and looks like a huge spider’s web. The little porticos on the side are painted in small squares imitating masonry, and give a pretty effect. The top is square and covered with eleven little cupolas in white marble front and back and four larger ones at the corners. On goes up by a labyrinth of rooms more or less black this brings one to a gallery above the main gate. The glimpse of the gate is magnificent, the Taj is certainly the most beautiful building I have ever seen, it is built entirely of white marble from the foundations to the highest part, and is of a purity and finish that defies description. One arrives between a double row of straight cypress trees with flowers and grass planted beneath arranged in geometric patterns with a long row of taps for the water jets and a pool of water in the middle three feet above ground level, and animated by man goldfish and water- plants,on each side cypress trees and crossing a lovely garden there are large wide pavements.. The garden is planted with trees of all sorts, grenadine trees, American Gourd trees, roses and big trees that come together in arches through wich one sees the sky in the distance and the Jumna. All this is well kept and swept clean, there are flowers that permeate the air with scent and one feels the peace and tranquillity. This garden was made by the Mohammedans and is known as God’s garden, “let none who hath not a pure soul enter the garden of God”. On an immense terrace onto which one gets by a covered step is placed ajewel of endeavour. From afar the big entry gate with its semicircular arch carved in different facets and the two doorsat the end one above the other, worked in lattice-work gives a marvellous effect. The building is octagonal with minarets on the tops of the square doors, ahuge dome in the middle surrounded by four cupolas. On the four sides the is an immense tower in white marble the blocks of which are joined by black marble

, these towers are in three slender tiers and covered with a lovely engraved cupola. On the principle gate in a huge panel are inscribed verses of the Koranin in black enrusted marble, at the base the marble has many flowers worked into it principally the “lotus flower” surrounded by insets made of different coloured stones. The interior is an immense marble dome cut in different facets, and in the centre of this large hall surrounded by an octagonal barrier in old polished marble of great beauty pierced to show a tracery of flowers of all sorts with a surround of poppies and other flowers, is the tomb of the Palace Beauty, Star of India, the adored wife of Shah Jehan the most powerful Mogul monarch.. On his coffin, laid in black marble are the 99 attributes of God and the base is incised with flowers of all manner of coloured stone. Beside her is buried the King and his tomb is equally well decorated. Guides explained all this to us and one with a very pure voice cried “Allah Jalalahah” “Allah Ackbar”, his voice of apparelled purity reverberated for half a minute, the immense marble vault gives a silvain echo that is better than I have ever heard, truly sublime.

Agra 28th January. We returned to the Taj yesterday afternoon and we will go back this evening to see the fountains. One can only stand and stare at this magnificent work of art that cost millions of rupees, more than 30 million were spent by the Kingto build a palace beautiful enough to contain the mortal remains of his adored wife, he was a happy man, he had loved, he had been loved and they lie here in peace. His wife died in 1629 in childbirth with their eigth child, the king then started to build this tomb which was only finished seven years after. From the balcony in his palace in the fort he saw the monument being built.. From the terrace of the Taj one sees the palace in front and below there is a long terrace, in red gravel flecked with white marblewich gives a very pretty effect seen from different angles. At the bottom is the Jumna which flows out of sight like a huge snake. The banks are planted simply with cereals and the water is ruffled, with a strong current. In the gardens of the Taj are men with crossbows which fire balls of hardened mud, they chase off birds of prey, this place is a haven of peace and these birds are not allowed to tarry.

Yesterday morning we went to visit the tomb of Ackbar at Secundrah. At the entrance is a majestic portico inlaid with different coloured marble, a huge balustrade with inlay on the slant all around, and many slabs with different designs here and here. There is a long avenue bordered by orange trees that lead to the tomb and at the four points of the compass there is a gate and a walkways that converge. This tomb is made up of an immense square with a terrace in the centre on which there are smaller ones with columns in the Chinese style. In the entrance hall which is bordered by marble cut with flowers, they have repainted a potion of the ceiling in arabesques bordered in gold. It is beautiful work that must have cost a lot. The Government has done this in one small corner to give the tourist an idea how things were but they can hardly be pleased to spend the money, they only do what is necessary for the upkeep of the place, All the domes and cupolas are in white painted marble. At the very top there is trellised marble, a courtyard paved with the same and in the middle Ackbar’s tomb, a large block of marble worked to the head where there is another sculpted block which had a golden ball on it, at the top of which had been set the famous Koh-i-Noor that had been taken by the Persian Emperor Nadar. The Tomb of the great Ackbar is in a darkened room at the end, with a big dome in which there is quite a good echo. In the adjoining rooms are buried the begums and other members of the royal family.

The surroundings of Agra and well cultivated. On gets there along a nice lane bordered by clumps of large trees, there are wells over which are wooden frames out of which water is drawn by oxen that work on an incline. Across the country there is an immensely wide canal which goes off into the distance and which is bordered by trees, it was cool and the travelling was very pleasant, we did not go to Fatepoor Sikai which is eighteen miles from here, it was too far away, Muttra, a Hindu village, is even further. Fateppor is an area of tombs; we had seen some good ones here and no real wish to see more. My two friends had gone to mass this morning and I was on my own here, yesterday we went to visit the archbishop and he returned the visit to the hotel, he lives close to the church or cathedral which is a good looking building with a high steeple and on the frontage marble statues placed in niches with a blue background.. We went into a little drawing room in which was a photo of the pope of the time, Léon XIII I think, the old archbishop of Agra with his big white beard and clean shaven upper lip, and the portrait of a monk, an old English priest came to tell us that the seigneur was out on his visiting round, we had no visiting card but I found in my wallet a card belonging to Durfort, and Bagneau found one belonging to René so we left those. There was a question yesterday that I should go with these gentlemen to Japan; however I don’t think I have enough money for that.

29th January /94 This morning we went to see the Jumna Musjid of Agra, a mosque in red sandstone surrounded by shops with domes mottled with ivory, at the entrance to the fort. From there we crossed the Public Garden and got out at a local shop where we saw them making embroidered cloth of gold braid on silk, then returned to the hotel for lunch. We then took the twenty past midday train for Cawnpore The station is a stone building covered in slate with two little square with decorative forged iron borders. We continued to see the Taj from the next station down the line with its minarets rising from the terrace. From the bridge that crosses the Jumna the palace with its balcony on the river is very beautiful. The countryside is always the same, quite monotonous.

Yesterday afternoon after having revisited the Jahangir Magal we went back to the Taj to have a last glance and see the water jets that are nothing very much but the toilets were good and there were heaps of people, elegant Muslim women with veils over their heads and their pantaloons, the men with gloves on, the women with their slim restricted waists. We were able to arrange to see the Nantch-girls or dancers.

30th January. Cawnpore. We are here since yesterday evening; we dined as soon as we alighted, at the station, in a big room well decorated with pyramids of tea packets, huge bottles on the bar, and five clocks giving the time in different places. After dinner we walked to The Railway Hotel, kept by Mr Lee, an old man of 70 who was in The 53rd Staffordshire Highlanders Regiment in the war of the Sepoys and who guided us this morning. He is a real Breton[xviii], stocky, phlegmatic, all white, with a ruddy complexion and blue eyes and a straight but scarred nose. He is one of those rare Englishmen who is in India and who fought against the Sepoys. He is very talkative and takes all his guests around the area. We went with him and he showed us not far from the Hotel the home of Nana sahib, the famous head of the revolutionaries. Nana Sahib or Nana Dimdepot had as a half brother Nana Ras; he was from the Maharatta Hindu, a lower caste Hindu, very bellicose and audacious. He was not pleased with the English government because they would not acknowledge his titles. Nana was the legitimate son of the King Maharatta, who had accepted him as his rightful heir. The Government would not recognise his titles, and he incited the natives against the English, and as he was exceedingly rich, he provided the funds and kept the revolt going. The natives had at their head five leaders who were: Fantitobi Nana Sahib,King of Cawnpore, The King of Oudh, Kuer Singh, King of Ara in Bengal, and the King of Delhi. The revolutionaries spread the word, by circulating cakes blessed by the Hindu priests which contained pamphlets. When the cakes had been cut the oath of fidelity to the English had been broken and they were free to fight against them. The Revolutionaries were absolute masters of the country and gave orders by couriers on horseback. They intercepted all telegraphic communication and the English who were a long way off could not send any news. At the start of the revolt Nana was in Cawnpore where there was the greatest number of English. He passd himself off as a devotee of England and gave advice to General Wheeler about the stance he should take. He was a well educated high born , rich and powerful, he was accepted into English society and went to their dances. On his advice the English were encamped in Longere a terrace of buildings newly built of which only the foundations are to be seen. Wheeler had written an order telling all the English to assemble in the “entrenchment”. Encircling this he had made a mud wall behind which the soldiers would be protected, all the women and children being in barracks. In front of the house is a well and the surrounding countryside, where the enemy was, was bare. To get water one went to the well at the peril of your life, and the people died of thirst and hunger, from cholera and madness brought on by the intense heat. Wheeler was wounded and in bed. They fought bravely and when they had to give up the main square they retreated to a smaller one. On the other side of the barricade was a well, over which they had placed a stone cross with inscriptions, where the men carried the dead at the risk of their own lives. On the other side are the rows of barrack blocks built in a diagonal line with the race course in front. Pushed to the very limits, they received a note signed by Nana in which he offered them free passage to Allahabad, so long as they gave up their arms. Wheeler accepted and they left
for the river Ganges or “Suttee Chowra Ghant” also known as “Massacre Ghant”, a place on the river where there is an octagonal Hindu pagoda with a chain that comes down from the ceiling and a stone on the flagstones.. The ceiling is painted with different figures; the outside is also decorated with quite indecent figures which were later effaced. On the front aspect are two platforms and steps that lead to the river. To the east is a long bend on which is built the car and railway bridge. Also to the east are brick platforms on which the Hindus carry out their cremations and the women throw themselves on their husband’s pyre, the ashes are subsequently thrown into the Ganges. Wheeler was quite surprised when he got to the pagoda; they entered and went down the steps. They started by embarking the older ladies and the infirm into three boats which were moored together, then others came behind, the young women and men were ordered to stay in the pagoda. Wheeler was under the awning of the quay, lying on his stretcher, everyone was to the east in the shelter of the parapet when Nana and his men, richly dressed, mainly retired sub-officers and native soldiers who had been appointed officers, they rushed the defenceless enemy and set about carnage by sword and rifle. The women were taken to Nana’s house and they were treated as will be described later. There had been cannon brought to the banks of the Ganges from some distance[CCdeC3] and the boats were bombarded as they passed. The women and children ran pell-mell into the water to get to the opposite bank and when they got close they were bombarded by cannon hidden in the undergrowth, they were almost all killed. Seven officers and sixty six men escaped and were recaptured and incarcerated in the Savadar House Nana Sahibs house on the other side of the race course. These por devils had their hands bound and could only eat a few grains of rice by leaning forward and using their mouths. When they died they were just left. A commemorative stone has been erected for them near the church. The women were taken to a house which no longer exists but on the spot is a cross in white marble on a black pedestal. This cross is to the westof the monument of Cawnpore and the Prince of Clarence, on his visit to India, a little before his death had three weeping willows and two cypress trees planted there. This house was on two floors of 16 rooms on each, the women and children were crammed in, the men in the house next door, Nana’s house was to the North, a well in the middle a large tree to the north east. The 53rd Regiment, in which was Joe Lee, came from Lucknow to the relief of Cawnpore. The bridges over the Grand Canal that is linked to the Ganges and passes close to Cawnpore and made a very good defensive obstacle had been destroyed, however the 53rd crossed on the only one remaining serviceable. There was an exchange of fire, Nana seeing that the Regiment was going to take his palace ordered the massacre of the victims, this was done in a barbaric way and too dreadful to be related in the history books. When the 53rd arrived in the house where the massacre had taken place the bodies were still warm, they buried them in the well which they ringed later and set up an angel in marble with two doves in her hand, 903 dead, women, children, old and infirm. The English took 275 Sepoys and dragged them through the blood of their victims they were then put to death at the cannon’s mouth, in rows of ten with hand tied behind their backs, under the big tree beside the well. Some

forty odd were hanged from the tree. They died with much composure[xix]. The monument is very good artistically, the surrounding wall are in stone worked in vine leaves on the inside, the railings are sculptured and posts finished with Gothic tops. The gate is in sculptured bronze, one goes down a circular staircase, on the opening of the well there is a pedestal in the same grey stone as used in the surrounding wall, bordered with a row of intertwined hearts, the angel above which has lowered eyes is a calm figure and reposes with palm leaves in her hands. To one side is a cemetery where many of the victims were buried with no inscription. Later well wishers erected a few monuments. All around the well there are cypress trees, and in front a bed of pansies of various colours. The famous tree is surrounded by a bank of earth a little larger in diameter. The garden is charming and it is forbidden bring in the horses too fast, all is done at walking pace to show respect. The monument is really imposing. We also visited the “memorial church” which is close to “Wheeler’s Entrenchment”, it is a gothic building with a huge bell, and heaps of inscriptions on marble tablets. Whole families were massacred. There is the communion table at the end, the two rows of tables for the music, inscriptions by each of the lateral doors, and rows of benches. The roof is very high and gives a strong echo; it was necessary to put a double layer of felt over the pulpit. To one side there is a building which is used as a school and has been reduced by half. It was here that many women and children took refuge. The natives set light to the roof and those that ran away were shot as soon as they left.

Lucknow, 13th January 1894. Having left Cawnpore yesterday on the four o’clock train we arrived here at 8 and came to The Royal Hotel, a fine hotel painted in white and blue with a gallery at first floop level and a huge terrace under an awning. We were delighted to meet some society ladies and men in evening dress sitting round a well laden table. The rooms are quite good with double beds. This morning we went with a man who had been a servant[xx] of Colonel Fulton du Genis, one of the principle officers in the siege of Lucknow. Firstly we went to Kaiser Bagh, an immense square with magnificent doors that had been covered with golden domes and had cost millions. It had been the palace and the Zenana of the last king of Oudh, the audience hall at the centre on the courtyard now serves as a committee room when The Viceroy comes to Lucknow. To one side is a boys college; the palace is quite well looked after with some fine well tended lawns, there are tufts of aurora vines, bougainvilleas, a whole series of f buildings on each side are not used. From there we went to the museum which has a plan of the countryside in ’87 showing the buildings around the Residence. On the ground floor there is a really huge collection of Hindu figures, gods, heads, budas, columns etc. Above one can see examples of local industry, life-size dummies of the different local Indians dressed in traditional dress of the region, specimens of Jeypoore stone, a collection of plaster statuettes and some of coloured earth, copper objects, and embroidery and so on. A little further

across some lovely lawns with big trees one gets to Baily’s Gate beside which is the treasury that contains 60 laques of rupees all around the residence and passing in front of this gate was a defensive wall nine feet high, the enemy was very close in the town where there were some fine houses which were later demolished to make way for a park: the door as well as the interior walls of the treasury are riddled with bullet holes, there is a pointed monument with marble plaques at one side of the treasury erected to the memory of the officers and native soldiers who died during the war. Further along is the entrance to Dr Farrier’s home where 30 women were locked up for six months in the cellar, and where the owner died of his wounds. The walls lizard skin and there is a little step in front. The Begam Khoti is beside an old mosque, where there were also 30 women. Nearby there is a large banyan tree, several gun emplacements and the Renan Post where the battle was most fierce. Then comes the house in which was Lady Outram, the rows of barracks and cavalry stables all in ruin. Then the Banqueting hall that had been converted into a hospital, there are flowers all around. Close by there is a well from which water is drawn by two oxen, working on an inclined plane, drag a leather bucket attached to a rope, they draw a great quantity of water in one go. After comes the Water Gate Battery on a promontory, with one large and two smaller cannon. At this point the English killed 2000 natives who tried to get though a breach, they made a sortie and took several cannon. The cemetery where Sir Henry Lawrence is buried is very close; his tomb is simple, and on a marble slab are written these words “Here lies Sir Henry Lawrence who did his duty, may the Lord have pity on his soul”. Within the area are many monument erected by friends of the soldiers killed by the Sepoys. The country round about is very fertile, there are fine fields of tobacco and vegetables, on the road that leads to Great Imambra or Machehi Bowan which is a large area with a grand entrance door at the base of which are two fish and above a crown over which is an umbrella, the emblems of the king of Oudh. The interior courtyard contains a large round, very green, lawn; one climbs up to the Imambra by a long staircase, the building is 360 feet long and has two small floors with a row of cupolas above, there is a relly huge hall inside and a veranda of the same size at the rear, all covered in cord matting with some containing shinny bits. At the centre are two tombs with balustrades covered in silver leaf, to one side there is a ghoon to Hossen and Hassen which are taken apart each year in July. In the rooms to each side there is a dias at the far end and red stone balconies which project from the arched roof. The king’s wives sat there to listen to the readings of the Koran. From there we went to the tombs of the Kings of Oudh, a place planted with lovely gardens. At the side entrance there is a large door decorated with two fish, below which is decorated with spikes. On entering the door leading to the courtyard, there is on each side a Roman[xxi] which holds a heavy chain attached to the top of the door. In the middle of the garden on either side of a long pond there is a monument representing the Taj, which are joined by a semi circular bridge. There are some lovely rose in the flower beds, and around the pond pots of clover with yellow flowers. The building at the far end is charming and contains the remains of the last king of Oudh. His wife was in Paris when she died and she is buried in the Père Lachaise cemetery. Around the tomb of the king of Oudh there are two fine German candelabras made of coloured glass that e cost an awful lot, big candelabras and shiny glass of many colours, the flagstones made of marble of a variety of colours. The public gardens are vast

with fine green lawns, in the centre are statues of white marble, a kiosk made of marble, around which there is a beautiful garden planted with many types of rose, daisies and other nice flowers.. The flower beds are arranged with different designs and the paths covered with white and green stone chippings. It appears this country is Rose country. We had seen some really good ones at the railway station, above all a wonderful spray of white ones. Railway stations are generally well kept, large square freshly painted buildings with long flowerbeds, planted with shrubs and flowers.

In the afternoon we did a tour of the bazaars. The proper town bazaar is the best. In the morning we stopped at the bazaar selling silver and articles in copper, it is clean, well kept and one sees some very fine objects, this area is just behind the Imambra, I saw some very pretty thins made of silver and copper, with black and red inlay. In one of the shops we saw some pieces in gold that really tempted me. Gold[CCdeC4] Mohurs from the time of the Indies Company. Other items from Oudh and Jeypoore, in Indian and Arabic script. A small piece from Oudh with the king of Oudh’s arms, two fish, the crown and parasol, tempted me greatly. In the bazaar of the canton we stopped off at an antiques shop where I bought some photographs and Durfort bought a painted statuette or two[xxii] representing the different castes and professions, and others in pottery but not painted. They cost about 5 or 6 rupees for half a dozen.

At the hotel we were harassed by sellers of embroidery and cashmere of all sorts, leopard skins, fox furs, sculptures. My companions very much regretted not having bought paintings on ivory , in Delhi of he Mogul Emperors, , of the, the Taj, The Jumna Musjid, and Persian women: they were very fine and showed good colours there, we found some good things in a photographer’s shop in Agra, but not here, nor at Benares we haven’t seen better or at more reasonable price. In the afternoon we went to see a dance by the Natch above a little shop, where we had to climb a steep and narrow stairway, with just enough space to pass, in the room which was really small with three sofas and a covered dais at one end, there were two musicians with sheets round their shoulders and their guitars, a little man with a triangle, our guide with his huge turban, twice as big as his head and his silver badge with the hotel sign on it, he sat on the side with the mistress of he house. The guide had tried to cheat us out of 30 rupees instead of fifteen for three girls; even then they provided only one. Neither the music nor the dance was worth the 15 rupees we actually paid. The girl was quite light skinned; her hair platted and allowed to hang down her back, a dress with a border at the bottom and in the front, with a yellow muslin wrap around her body. She had blue silk trousers decorated in gold, bejewelled fingers and feet, she was very graceful, she danced by turning one way and then the other on the balls of her feet making gestures with her arms and hands holding the end of her veil singing in a monotone all the time, Orientals have a lot of grace.

The next day, 1st February, in the morning, we took the 6 o’clock train for Benarès where we arrived at 2 in the afternoon. We made our way to Clerk’s Family Hotel, a clean and well maintained place. I was able to have a room with double bed near the little anteroom at the entrance; my companions were set up in a room in the wing to the right. There were all sorts of plants in the courtyard. The town of Benarès left us with a poor impression. It had just rained and everything was muddy; we even had rain when crossing the town and on the boat on the Ganges. Our first visit after high tea was to the Ganges, we took a coupé with two black horses, and after having traversed the Cantonment and the native part of town, we alighted to have a look at The Golden Temple. The town has quite a wide road leading to the river, the roads that give off the main one are relatively small, the houses low and made of mud, roofed in straw and tiles, the people dirty; the population is almost entirely Hindu, the town being the most holy place for them. We stopped before a paved and twisty road with huge buildings, the street is extremely narrow and one can only go down it on foot. In the street stalls they sold coloured stones of all colours, polished and oblong, “Lingams” or stones that the Hindus revere, “Poche[CCdeC5] ” shaped into horses heads, red and yellow for rosaries, rosaries of engraved beads, crowns or rosaries of yellow or white flowers to give as offerings. There are also manufacturers of gold thread, shops selling copper items and material. The first temple we stopped at was dedicated to the God Ganash, the god with an elephant’s head and four arms, which Parbatti the wife of Shiva made as a plaything into which he infused life, it is the god of knowledge. It is in stone painted in red oil-paint. These temples are filthy, all in stone and damp; water and flowers are sprinkled around as offerings. Sacred cows wander around freely. The temples are generally in grey cut stone with a central roof coming to a point with other smaller roofs seemingly coming up all around.

From time to time one sees temples made of red stone. Of the frontage there is an awning held up by intricate cut columns, in the middle of this awning is placed the lingam set in the middle of a round stone with a handle. Inside the temple is an effigy of the god to which the temple is dedicated, it is painted red and encircled with collars of flowers. Somewhat further we saw the temple with the golden roof, which cost millions, there is the central roof which is quite large and another beside it which shine with gold, the one on the right on entering is not covered in gold, the Rajah’s successor ceased the practice. Inside the temple is the sacred well. The story of this well is that the Muslims had built a mosque really close. This caused considerable controversy and later they closed the mosque and the god Shiva jumped from the top into the well close by, which became sacred because of this. Offers of flowers and cash are made to a Brahmin who sits on the side of this well which is surrounded and covered with offers and sacred water. In one temple or pagoda sacred cows circulate freely and make no effort to get out of your way to let you pass.

Hindus have the greatest respect for the cow; recently there was a very bad incident when a Muslin killed a cow in front of some Hindus, they do not forgive that sort of thing, they prefer Christians to any Muslim because the former kills his ox in private and respects their religion whereas the Muslim is unrelenting.. We were taken through the whole Temple complex on the banks of the river by a Brahmin of high caste with his sacred string; our guide is himself a Brahmin of high caste, he is short and fat like all Brahmins, a real Hindu head with his rotund figure, a poutou[CCdeC6] tightened and a tunic with large red stripes, a European over jacket in satin-wool and a big straw coloured cap part of which falls over the nape of his neck. Coming out of that, we made our way to the sacred river, we descended an uneven slope which was slippery after the rain. The bank is set with long red stone used for construction. The Ganga[CCdeC7] is fairly shallow but despite that is very wide; at times of flood it rises 15 to 20 feet and sweeps away the weirs which are built to deepen the water. The Ganges is sacred because it flows from Shiva’s hair. The buildings that line the river are for the most part palaces of the different Hindu Rajahs, and different pagodas. These palaces are large and made of grey stone with balconies and towers. Many terraces of steps lead down to the river. On the water there are large platforms built on which the Brahmin sit under huge sunshades made of platted palm leaves. It is there that they carry out their rituals and say their prayers. There are barges carrying wood and stone. For passengers there are boats powered by three or four rowers, in the centre of which is a surprisingly spacious cabin., on the bridge, the cabin is surrounded by sun blinds that can be rolled up, they provide chairs and one is quite comfortable; when the weather is good one sets oneself up on the poop deck to take in both banks. The opposite bank is bare. In getting back to the bridge that crosses the river to the west one has to descend to the place where the Nepali Temple is situated, this is strangely carved on the cornice made of wood; the main door is also in carved wood, the temple has a small second story in the Chinese style.. A little further on one can see large carved stone idols lying in the middle of the bank with their legs stretched out and their big heads painted, wearing a moustache having wide open eyes and a square cap.. These are Vishnu’s father and other gods that they pray to. Further along is the place where the Brahmin live, before that comes the spot where cremations take place. We were there as night fell. The ceremony is interesting. The body is wrapped in white cloth and sprinkled with rose-water, like that which is used on Indian feast days, the pall bearers sing all the time on their journey. They come down and lay the body in the water until it is soaked through. Then they withdraw the cloth and water the face, they then replace the cloth and place the body with its feet in the water. The sad task of lighting the pyre falls to the closest relative whose duty it is. The pyre master is a priest; the corps is laid on the pyre and covered in faggots. The relative then enters the room which is to one side and built on a higher terrace. In which is the sacred fire, tended by a Hindu of inferior caste who asks the price he wishes for the fire-brand. They bargain and the corps is ignored. Finally the chap returns. Before going to fetch his fire-brand he has his whole head and face shaved, bathes in the river, dresses in brand new clothes, which he will wear for six days, during which time he will he will not touch anything and will do his own cooking close by, probably because he is unclean.

Thursday 8th February 1894: Darjeeling

We came from Calcutta at 3pm after a very pretty journey, I have not had the courage to write since I have been here, and it is only now that I am in a good hotel, well heated that I will put pen to paper to relate something of my stay in this town. We arrived on Saturday morning at 6 o’clock after a 15 hour journey from Benares which we left at 11/2 hrs pm. by the mail train. We dismissed our guide at the station and did the first part of the journey with a tall German wearing a large red beard whom we had met in Calcutta and whose path had crossed ours in Darjeeling. Three old spinsters were also on our train, they were travelling together going round the world, they managed very well; we met them when buying tickets at Thomas Cook’s in Calcutta. The countryside appears to be richer and more civilised in this part of India. The country is more or less the same; there are the occasional sugar cane fields, badly maintained and very small. Railway stations are clean; the line double, at each station there is a long low building on both sides, painted in dark colours, with a narrow garden along the footpath, at the end a little water tower with cornices, used to replenish the engines. Our train went directly to Howrah without any change. We stopped at Mokamah for dinner, the table is well set and the room very big. It is always Kellner Co. Ltd than holds the franchise for these buffets. At Hounah we took a palanquin below which we placed our travel rugs and cases. The station is very big but has no style. The way the Bengalis dress is with a long piece of cloth which hangs in front of the knees, an overcoat with pockets, stockings and shoes, and a cashmere rug either plain coloured or white with a red border, for the most part they do not wear hats, their hair is cut short. The approach to Calcutta is not pleasant due to the unpleasant smell that rises from the street which is continually watered and is muddy, and the smoke which is also disagreeable, Howrath is on the other side of Hoogly, on is obliged to get to the town by crossing a huge wide bridge covered with bitumen over which they have put macadam and wooden planks; There are faneau[CCdeC8] in the middle dividing the bridge into two, the river is wide and to permit ships to pass the centre span swings. The bridge master is a big Englishman with a wide straw hat, short and fat, hands in pockets. On the other side of the bridge is an area crammed with shops, the native owners are wear baggy old gonis[CCdeC9] torn and filthy, soon one gets to nice shops with advertisements and names above. The pavement is wide and the frontage is protected by a metal Marquise[CCdeC10] , they have large shop-windows and the shops are well stocked. The grand eastern hotel is in this road, the building is raised above the others and has a huge veranda on front and a terrace above, it is painted green, on the ground floor are large shops selling perishable goods. First of all we stopped off at the post office which is in Greek style with big iron circular columns, supporting a fine dome overlooking Dalhousie square, my friends picked up their poste-restante mail there, as for me I received nothing. In this road before the post office one passes close to the docks and massive government buildings. The Viceroy’s residence is a little further on. It is an immense building surrounded by a metal grill and planted with trees, a big entrance gate on either side of which there is a lion with its paw resting on a globe[xxiii], the emblem of the Viceroy wich can be seen above the gate.

In front is the Dalhoustie Square where one finds all the best shops, and following the road along the square one get to the race course and Eden garden. We stayed at the Paris Hotel, owned and managed by father Bonsard, the retired-cook to the Viceroy for whom he worked for 27 years. His hotel is in the Bazaar. The food is excellent. I shared a room with Durfort a double room with dressing room and bath at the end. Father Bonsard is a big man with an enormous belly and head buried in his shoulders. He has big eyes and a thick, head of hair, he is an interesting conversationalist. He provides the catering for all the big festivities and hunts given by foreign princes, and he makes a lot of money. He was with the Czar and the Grand Duke Alexander in Nepal for a tiger hunt, they killed 1197 animals of all kinds of which 400 wee prime specimens, many of them tigers. One hunts tiger from the backs of elephant by cornering them. He had also followed the Duke and prince of Orléans the first of whom is the son of the Count of Paris the pretender to the throne; he is lazy whereas his cousin Prince Henrie of Orléans works very hard. Father Bonsard has a chateau to the north of Calcutta from where he obtains truffles; he has a reasonable capital fortune which he has made from his work. He criticised the French considerably, all the French commercial enterprises in Calcutta had failed, whereas the German firms that were more numerous than the English were making money. He lives in a house in a little town north of Dover where he is due to go soon and where he has relatives, when he wishes he goes to spend a few days in Paris. He started by working in England where he organised dinners for 800 at a time.

On the evening of my arrival we called in at The Great Eastern to pick up Pierre Adam[xxiv] with whom we had been to the other side of Hoogley to see the Botanical Garden which is very fine. We had walked along very long avenues with very straight trees planted at regular intervals. There were fine clumps of pandanus, lawns, small kiosks and picnic areas. At the far end is a banyan over a hundred years old throwing out huge roots and taking up a lot of space; this tree is very well cared for and is really exceptional. There are also macadamia trees, tamarind and other fine trees, the branches are allowed to reach to the ground and it is very pretty.. This garden covers an area of 272 arpents, it is well tended, quiet and it is a pleasure to wander around after coming from the town. The journey back is frustrating. Towards six in the evening the natives start to light their fires and one goes through an unsavoury district where everyone is covered in rags, black with smoke and where even the air reeks. It just enters your being. The area around the garden is quite pretty, the employees houses very clean, painted and planted around with big trees. In the evening I dined at The great eastern with Adam. The room was on the third floor entered via a lateral staircase, giving onto an internal courtyard where there is an intricate system of chimneys leading from the kitchens on the same floor to the front there is a row of convenient rooms with terraces which are separate to the building itself. The dining room is in marble with beautiful, rich draperies, together we partook of a good bottle of wine and champagne, after that we went to the Royal opera where they were putting on “Maratina”, an opera where Miss Jacson, a brunette, sang extremely well, Miss Vera Pati dressed as a page was delightful, they did a dance to castanets.

The opera was about a scene in Madrid where Don Caesar of Bragance and the king of Spain were competing for the hand of Maratina; Don Ceasar was a success with a fine voice. The opera house is very small and one pays 4 rupees for a seat, the actors were quite good. I came back the next night with my fellow travellers.

The following day, Sunday, I accompanied Pierre Adam to Chandanagore to see Mr Doorga, a rich Hindu merchant who spoke excellent French. His right hand man, a Frenchman, came to pick us up at the hotel and we joined Captain Fleuriot and his lieutenant de la Fraternité in his office. Mr Dourga arranged to have us taken in his coupé drawn by two black horses and he received us in his drawing room, in which was antique French furniture and oil paintings, old style. He was dressed in purple velvet; we were offered cigars and sandalwood oil splashed onto our handkerchiefs. After a little conversation he put on his embroidered cashmere, a magnificent shawl and showed us around his garden, his houses and the town which is more or less in ruin; they manufacture only cloth and soft furnishings. The only building of any consequence is the church beside which is the girls’ convent and a little further the hospital. The promenade along the river is pretty, the opposite bank is planted with trees and one can see the river for quite a long way in either direction. We saw many young girls being brought up by the sisters. They gave us dinner at the hotel where, being Hindu, they did not join us. The country leaving Calcutta is quite dry after the grain harvest, they make a lot of bricks, there are coconut plantations and the betel plants are covered because of the sunshine, then there is rice, sugarcane and other things. The population of Chandernagore has declined from 80,000 to 20,000, the white French population is practically nil. Returning at 9pm. we went to have a drink at The Wellington Bar and finally got in fairly late at night.

On Monday we went to some photographer’s shops where we saw some good examples depicting tiger hunts, very fine photo-engravings and paintings of rajahs and others, these studios are set up with considerable taste. We went to The British India Company[xxv] and to the shipping company and in the afternoon we took a carriage for a trip around the race course, and then went to Eden Garden. The race course or Maiden is enormous with trees in the distance, it is here that they do military exercises and have the horse races. All the highest society of Calcutta goes there in the afternoon; one sees some fine carriages, victories and coupes. Palaquins drawn by the finest horses, heaps of “baggies”, two wheeled carriages with a well turned out cob with close cut mane. The men are usually in a suit with a straw hat and drive themselves, or make their groom take the bridle when they are not there; everyone is very elegant and they behave impeccably. In Eden garden there is live music. The Viceroys music is played several days per week from a bandstand, the musicians are dressed in black with a red kepi and they play well. A lot of people come most in a suit with straw hat and leather gloves, the women are well dressed and one takes them on the arm to stroll round the bandstand.

On Tuesday we went to the zoological gardens where there are all sorts of animals,
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Zebras, monkeys from many different places, tigers, lions, tapirs, a huge aviary containing parrots from America, Australia and other countries. We didn’t find the snakes which were on the left of the entrance in glass cases. The walk to this place is very pretty, one walks along the river where there is a throng of ships from around the world, the docks, cart traffic with pairs of huge oxen with extensive horns and their languid eyes, the driver on his box who squeezes their tails to make them walk. We passed the big race course where Bengali soldiers in Sepoy dress carried out manoeuvres, lying flat on their stomachs brandishing their rifles, others in white coats with a red sash round the hips march in rank, all along the road we saw soldiers in black serge uniform with caps wrapped in black covers and a leather belt around the waist. On our way back we passed by the race course and the stands, then through a road lined with large trees, we stopped off at the “skating club” where we saw many young boys and girls glide on roller skates in a very large hall with parquet floor.

We were not very well lodged at the hotel and the foul air of the town made us ill, we hastened to get away.

Darjeeling, 9th February 1894: We left Sealdale Station the day before yesterday, the 7th. By the 4pm. Train the second class return ticket cost 33.03 rupees. On gets onto a very good train, second class is much the same as first; everything is well until one gets to Gange where one gets out at 8.30pm. to take a little steamer of about 1000 tons which takes passengers and goods across the river. It takes 20 minutes to do this trip. On the deck which has a large awning they serve a superb dinner and the boat moves not an inch. At the bow a man swings a plumb line and sings out the depth. To descend to the river bank there are two fine flares fuelled by a gasometer or evaporator giving out a bright light. On the other side one gets off onto a floating pontoon and the station is just ahead. After dinner on the deck Durfort suffered a dizzy spell, possibly because of the Calcutta sun and the food, he was laid out full length on his back; we bathed his forehead with a little water and with the aid of a little “eau de vie”, he became himself again. Instead of travelling in second class we had to take first class to Siliguri, where we arrived for breakfast at 8 o’clock. From that station we change train, one takes a very small little line with light open carriages, the rails are narrow and the wheels within the chassis, a real toy of a train, a little larger than an ordinary De Canville. At the front there is an enclosed carriage with a stretcher in the middle for invalids, then one or two closed carriages, the others being open. The line crosses a charming countryside covered in forest woodland and plantations of tea. The country becomes very pretty as soon as one leaves Siliguri; all along the route there are large trees covered in creepers, ravines and precipices everywhere and pretty little houses line the route, built on piles because of the lack of level ground. The railway line follows the road the whole way and crosses it many times; the train goes round in circles, the most acute curves, and from time to time it
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goes under a bridge, one goes full circle, and then goes over the same bridge in other places, the line which one sees below, being unable to complete the turn the line comes to an end and starts again by means of points onto another line. When one gets to a certain height there are large tea plantations criss-crossed by zig-zig roads or roads that follow the contours of the hill, the view of all these valleys is similar to that we saw in the mountains in Ceylon but is more grand and less green. The rocks on the mountains are flecked with mica and they twinkle brightly like gold. At every station one is assailed by children who come to beg. The people are very strong, all the men are large and robust with good calves, the average man is Chinese mixed with Indian, they have a mop of hair finishing in a ponytail for the men; the women wear a plat on either side of the head coming together in the centre of the back. They have a Chinese blouse with wide sleeves, a black cloth around the waist by way of apron, a trouser down to the shoes which are double thickness cloth with red on either side, the soles are made of rope and are very thick., they all have a knife or dagger, quite heavy, about an inch and a half thick, with curved end, carried in the belt. The jaw-line is wide and strong they have almond eyes. The coolies carry very heavy loads in willow baskets ending in a point carried by means of a strap tied around the forehead. The women are richly dressed, clean, with hair well presented, wide sleeves and a belt worn above the hips, in their ears they wear rings of different sizes of blue enamelled copper, round the neck they wear necklaces of the same material falling to the breast with a box in the centre. They are good looking, chubby and ruddy cheeked, they are a happy people but not loud. At Goom before arriving in Darjeeling we met some natives who were well set up. Their headdress is usually a hat made of fur which hangs down on each side; sometimes they will wear a grey felt hat, the sides of which are turned up. They ride small dumpy horses bred for the mountains. The cattle are very large with small horns and long hair. The people are either Hindu or Buddhist. This morning I saw a dance take place in front of the bazaar. They had fixed several poles in the ground and were flying flags with circles on them. The dancers had bands embroidered round their sleeves; they were richly dressed and danced with abandon, surrounded by people. The policemen were well kitted out in blue serge, a leather belt and a round serge hat complete with their badge of office. Many, to ward off the cold, wrap their calves in bands of cloth. The approach to Darjeeling is very pretty, the country itself is bare but the town is clean and well kept, it is positioned on a steep slope with hillocks around; the buildings are built of stone cut to resemble brick with well fitting joints, they are all covered in galvanised iron. They all have different windows with verandas enclosed by glass or projecting glassed bow windows. The best road, where all the shops and chemists are, goes past the Drum Druid Hotel where we settled in; it continues to end at a place which overlooks the opposite slope, in the middle of which is a bandstand. In front there is a hill on which there is a fine club and church, a road runs around it. Facing the hotel is a Jesuit college, red in the Gothic style; to one side is the convent. The bazaar is lower than the hotel but just in front,
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It is clean and well kept what a difference to the bazaars on the plain. We went there this morning and spent some time at the place of an Indian from Assam, a good looking fellow with pale skin a fine black beard and good teeth. He was dressed in a long puce coat with white baggy trousers brought together at the ankle. He presented to us wonderful woven carpets embroidered with silk of many colours depicting tigers and other animals, the Golden Temple of Lahore, the Taj, others embroidered with gold thread, cashmeres, carpets of all sorts from the Punjab, Cashmere and Assam. He also showed us furs of lynx, lovely long silky hair with a long tail, ————————————————-, interlaced fox tails. I bought a tiger skin that cost 150 rupees but he let me have for only 50. From there we crossed some well tended countryside planted with prime pines and other trees, upto the top of a hill that overlooks the railway station. From there we had a magnificent view of the opposite slope which is partially wooded to its summit. All of a sudden to our left, the clouds parted spectacularly and we distinctly saw a mountainous area covered in beautiful white snow, we could pick out several peaks. According to the hotelier it was not the area of eternal snows, these snows melt quickly, the eternal snows are much more spectacular, let us hope that tomorrow morning we will have the luck to have good weather, and that we will see them, we will then see Kintin-Junga the highest peak of the Himalayas, Everest being on the other side.

It seems that a man named Shaw recently climbed these mountains; he had been smitten with snow-bite and was in a bad way. The burns that one gets are, apparently, difficult to cure. The season in Darjeeling is from 15th April to 15th October, during the heat of summer, when hotels are full, and very expensive, on Bank Holidays on is obliged to sleep two to a bed. In the rainy season is poor weather for 19 days out of 20 and when the sun suddenly clears, one needs to wear a solar hat for fear of getting sun stroke. The town has a good drainage system, there are large channels covered with planks and gutters all over the place. At this time we have 50degrees Fahrenheit in the shade during the day. At the hotel we have a charming room with a bed having a metal spring mattress, a commode in a black, well varnished, wood, the teak commode that one sees everywhere, with copper sleeves and a good fire, to warm oneself, in the foyer; at night one is comfortable under three blankets but one has no wish to get up in the morning and the water is cold. They have from 60 to 70 people here during the season; the set-up and food is good, the manager friendly and approachable. Mr Lord the owner, with his brother, have several places round here. The hotel is below the road and is very well run.

Saturday 10th February: This morning the manager came to wake me at 5 in the morning to have a look at the snows. The sight before my eyes was superb, the whole mountain range from Kinchin-Junga and even some further away up to Na-tong, a huge curve was covered with snow right to the top, the peaks around Kin-Chin Junga were really beautiful, the snow brilliant white, with a few blue patches above the peaks, the slopes completely white and crevasses full of snow, all this seemed to follow a straight line with a backdrop of blue sky. I saw a glorious sun-rise over the mountains and went for a long walk. Returning we made our way to Observatory hill where the view is truly amazing. To get there one passes some lovely bungalows built within the pines, they have a wooden balcony all around.
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We spoke at length with a young man from the Vendé region of France, a compatriot of de Bagneau. We dined at Siliguri with our planter who treated us to a whisky and who saw us to our carriage. We slept in fits and starts with the heat, and the leopard skin which was not properly cured and smelt awful. Wre crossed the river on the steamer at 6 in the morning. The countryside after the river is very pretty; the village houses have thatched roofs build in the Hindu style. The area is planted with date palms for the manufacture of rum., one sees these majestic trees covered in red flowers, there are plantings of betel and some jungle scrub. At the Séaldal station after picking up some native and English passengers going into town, we took a palaquin to go to The Hotel de Paris where we were delighted to meet père Bonsard once again. On the day of our arrival, Monday, we ordered lunch for 11.30 so as to keep to the French time kept by these men, and left after to see the photographer in Sowringer Road; he has a good showroom and in his albums I had the pleasure of seeing a lot of the countryside from all parts of India; from north to south. A photograph of a public feast-day in Madras impressed me due to the number of people that had gathered together, The Golden Temple and other tombs in Lahore, the stone calf with natives on their knees before it, the quays of Madras with its ships and the sea breaking along the coast., the view of Pondicherry with the statue and columns, and many others beautifully composed and developed. There were some showing the natives: Tibetans, savages from the Anderman islands, completely without clothes bur with marks on their bodies, my friends bought about 50 views after which we went for our evening stroll. Yesterday we went to Harnac’s shop to have our measurement taken for suits to be made, the amount of traffic is huge, with busses crossing in all directions in front of the shops, and the goods vehicles[CCdeC11] . We also went to see the bankers. The National Bank of India is in the Greek style. All the employees are Bengali who are diligent in their work, perched on their high stools and dressed in their big white cloaks[CCdeC12] closed around the chest and slit at the side, their flowing blue langoti[CCdeC13] and white stockings. I was taken to an internal room and seated at a table where a baboo[CCdeC14] made me sign my cheques and counted out the money to me. The English directors and management keep to the rooms at the back. I also went for a little trip in a carriage around the European quarter, the surroundings are quite pleasant.

Today I had a long conversation with Bagneau on the subject of the Paris “Jockey Club” for which the entry fee is 1850 francs and where there is much opulence, the prizes given by the club from their revenue is from 3 to 400,000 Francs. Durfort is up to his neck in The Nobility, his father is a Viscount, he and his brothers Counts, his uncle a Duke, the younger a Marquis, through his mother’s line he is of Monmorency princely stock, he is a very distinguished man, holds himself well and has style, he has revenues of about 6,000 francs per annum from his properties and he spends his time hunting[CCdeC15] on his estates. His father has a 3000 hectare estate in Normandy, he[CCdeC16] is an officer of the Hussars, retired; he showed me an oil painting of the regiment ( the 6th ) hanging in the photographers’, where the colonel is perched on his horse, sabre in hand and helmet with feathers, or horses’ hair, flowing out behind. He is a devout catholic and much admires the Jesuits by whom he was brought up, he is 26 and

Bagneau 30 years old. The family is very numerous and stick together. Bagneau has a step mother whom he hates, his mother died at 27 years old when he was a small child.

Yesterday we went again to listen to the music; we went all along the Hougly to see the B.I. steamships and the docks. Getting there we passed the European volunteers mixing in with the local militia, in all different types of uniform; rifles with fixed bayonets, doing their training under the command of a military officer. Eden garden looks great with its many lamps everywhere, and the blue flames around the bandstand, the women are elegantly dressed and stroll with their husbands, we settled on a bench and listened to some good music, the Viceroy’s coach with his coachman and his four outriders front and back, all in red livery, bedecked with gold-braid, stopped in front of the bandstand near some fine teams of horses and carriages. An Indian woman driving two beautiful black horses with a large high carriage was much to be seen. Babous in their lace bonnets and thin clothing, in silk and linen driving in yellow carriages, perched on their seats, footmen dressed in yellow behind the men with straw hats and the beautiful animals which trotted with a high step, all this made a cheerful scene.

This afternoon, following the huge green lawn past the fort, we have been to the zoo. It was cool and we had a good walk, this time we saw the snakes in their glass cases, where they put straw and a woollen blanket in which they can curl up, we have seen an immense black python curled up in its cage, green snakes, grey, etc. of all sizes, alligators with pointed snouts basking on its tummy at the bottom of a pool made of porcelain tiles, a little crocodile with its jaws agape staying in this position for hours at a time, fallow deer, black ostridge emus, kangaroos, rhinoceros, hippopotamus with his thick armour, divided along his back. The cat enclosure—tigers, fisher-cats, leopards, lions, black and variegated panthers, all this is absolutely fascinating. We baited the tigers, their roars were terrifying and made ones hair stand on end. The monkeys are well housed in a building with iron compartments, we enjoyed ourselves by scratching their heads through the bars and playing tricks on them; One of them took half an anna from me and tried in vain to bite it making faces and grimacing, a poor brown monkey which had a growth on its face which implored us by opening its mouth and turning round to show us the spot from which it suffered greatly. The ornamental-bird house with the guttural cries was also interesting. Next to the tigers we saw some enormous monkeys with protruding and hideous snouts. The return was enchanting, one is surrounded by lamplight which shines everywhere through the trees, it is fine sight. Father Bansard entertained us before and after dinner discoursing on Calcutta, the troops in India, his wine cellar, etc He is a very amusing man.

The address of the planter from Sibiguru is F. D. Grant, Central Serai Tra. Cy. Sookna

Saturday 17th February /94. We are at anchor four hours from Calcutta waiting for the tide so that we can exit the Hoogly. I decided yesterday to go to Singapore where I

Sunday 4th February 1894 Singapore: This evening I went to dine with Mr Cox at number 2 Patterson Road. There is a fine house cool with a huge veranda on the first floor, the dining room is also on the first floor; he received me very well and served Champagne and an excellent meal. Their dining room as well as the living room are simply furnished and the doors tall and wide, his eldest daughter is very distinguished, a lovely brunette, his other three daughters are also charming, we spoke a little of Mauritius. There are three judges in Singapore and Penang. Their judgements are made on their own and appeals are made from time to time, Mr Cox and his brother-judge are going to Penang on 4th April to preside over the appeal court where they will be for about twelve days. A judge’s role is more tiring here; they do not have any holidays. As secretary he has Mr Rodesse, a Mauritian who came here with Mr Pellereau. He is part of, as Honorary Member, of all the clubs; The Singapore Cricket Club, The Yacht Club and The Racing Club etc. he is only active in The Singapore Club, which is a fine club between the buildings of The Post Office and the Harbour Master.

Monday 5th March 1894. I am aboard the “Rohila” for the last 51/2 days on route for Hong Kong. Not having been to Batavia I decided to go to Hong king. I had lunch with Captain Crawford, who took me for a tour of the port in his little steam boat; after having paid my bill at Hotel Europe at Rs4 for five days, I went to rejoin my amiable Captain on the wharf, his “tag” is very pleasant, it is all of teak, very long with a deck all round, cushions at the front. We went to a small island in front of the port and quite close to |the P & O Wharf. He showed me his marine operations, where he was in the process of installing a generator. He has a small workshop with turning machines, steam hammers etc. and a specialist-area, and three creole workmen from Mauritius, they were in course of preparing to set up asbestos and cement insulation against the heat between the generator and wood . The other workmen were Malay and Chinese.

Saturday 10th March 1894. We have had a very pleasant trip since our departure from Singapore. The sea has been calm and apart from some heat during the first few days the weather has been superb. From six in the evening on Monday to twelve midday Tuesday we made 202 knots, 280 knots on Wednesday, 286 Thursday, 299 Friday; today it is rainy and the sea choppy, the ship ploughing into the water throws up an enormous spray right up to the bridge. The “Rohills” is a lovely ship; it is very long and fairly narrow. The upper deck extends almost the whole length of the ship, and one can take quite a long walk. First class is spacious and is full of people. Lord Sutherland and his wife are passengers going to Hong Kong, there are many people and they are all very correct in their behaviour. A young girl with fresh red cheeks, a little waist well pulled in, a drille skirt with pockets, a little straw hat perched on top of her hair often walks one way and then the other past the second class passengers. The first class passengers often come to our side because one feels the ships movement much less here. One passes the time by playing deck quoits, with “buckets”, with lines or circles marked out in chalk. In second class we have a missionary who is travelling from Assam with his wife, his child and their parents: he is an American Methodist and has done a lot of proselytising there;
where he had established himself; he was the first to colonise Assam and to learn the language of the country. He is passing through China to meet his co-missionaries before returning to America.

The other passengers in second class are Miss Margaret Cuthbertson who is joining her fiancé who works in a marine organisation in Shan-Haî, her brother accompanied her from Scotland to London where he left her on the “Austalasia” and she changed ships in Colombo, she is a Scot, blond, with a strong accent, a good and brave girl, blond with red cheeks, she wears a large Scottish overcoat and a tweed clock over that. Catchpole is a successful comic, who passes the time sneezing just to frighten people and saying “Horrible your Worship” is in the same cabin as I; he has a large, clean shaven, jovial face and a blue serge suit with wide collar; he spends his days sleeping. Southwood and Smith, two other Englishmen are in the cabin opposite, they are both clean shaven. Cairncross, another Scot with a beard and an old man with a red face; they are both in the same cabin; they come from England where they have been on holiday. Hedrick, a Scot whose destination is Hong Kong where he hopes to get employment as an engineer, he sits opposite me at table. The days are spent eating in the small second class room where we are a bit crowded, reading and playing “quoits” on deck. A young boy travelling in first gives joy to everyone; he is as happy as a chaffinch and gambols everywhere, he plays a little with us. First Class is large and very long, we walk the whole length. The second class servants are Portuguese from Goa, the chief steward is English as are the stewardesses. The officers and captain are not communicative, they only frequent the first class, we see them do their watch on the poop deck above us and when they take the forward watch. We have several Chinamen as travelling companions; they are with their wives and children. They are very quiet and not at all disagreeable. Their wives are very happy and have fun with their little rascals who have shaven heads, woollen bonnets in all colours, and gaudy clothing with braces. During the voyage these Chinese are dressed in white, a very voluminous costume, and on the ship’s arrival they put on a tight trouser attached to the stocking and without depth over their breeches, then large breeches hanging behind the head and tied around the neck. The food in second class is simple and less tiring than that of the first class, we breakfast at half past eight, lunch at one thirty and high tea at six thirty, a cup of tea and a biscuit at four and some cheese at nine. There are quite a few passengers in stowage, they are all in together pell-mell with their entire luggage on the deck below and cook their own meals on deck. On approaching Hong Kong today, we have seen several Chinese junks in the open sea, there are always two of them together, they are very large boats with square sails with a high stern containing a cabin in which the whole family lives, they all fish and dry their fish before entering port.

Monday 12th March 1894. Hong Kong: The port is very pretty, the town is on a hill or rather several hills which make up an island. The town itself is on the plateau below, it is quite large and the buildings very high and the streets narrow, but very clean. The buildings are in brick covered in tiles, very tall,
with balconies and columns on the ground floor level as well as the first floor level, The Hong Kong Hotel has seven floors and is an the port opposite the “ferry-boat wharf”: from afar the town appears as a huge pigeon loft with its buildings of many floors with balconies and colonnades. Yesterday I went down with Miss Maggy Cuthbertson with whom I walked to the P & O office where she collected a telegram from her fiancé. Afterwards we went together to the church at 11 o’clock, then we climbed the hill a little near the protestant church, where the path rises snake-like and is bordered by ferns of all sorts, lovely tree-ferns, philodendrons, ferns with red flowers as we have near the river at Ménil, polipotes, &c., it is delightful. Climbing opposite the “Clock-Tower”, we met flower sellers who assailed us with T roses in bud and all sorts of other flowers, we had some perfumed narine. I offered Miss Margaret a bunch of rose buds and after having eaten at the hotel we went in a little funicular railway to the top of the Peak. This little railway comes and goes every quarter of an hour, it operates via a chain which goes over rollers, and it proceeds sometimes almost perpendicularly, the trees and the houses seem to be very odd as one gets higher., the trees are also climbing and the houses cling to their perches. The summit is completely denuded of vegetation. To the right are the signal mast and a little observatory. The stations are small and set on the incline. One alights close to the Peak Hotel, to the left, and going up one gets to The Mount Road Hotel which is very big and at the very top. From that height the town seems like a mass of small, well cut, squares. Opposite, on hard ground, there is a whole town and wharfs where P&O and other steamers moor up to the quays. The harbour is immense and scattered with ships, junks, and little “tugs” which plough the waters in every way; there are also lots of buoys, the harbour takes up all the space between the island and the mainland and it is very long. Opposite the terrain is mountainous, and the ridges wish descend to the sea are red and bare. I have just come back at 3.15pm from a long trip out of town. I followed the row of bungalows along the mountain for more than two miles. The roads are surfaced and clean, all along the borders are ferns and shrubs, on the balconies above ground floor and on the steps are pots with flowers of all sorts, shrubs in flower and scented, gracious chalets with drains made with a grey clay looking like bamboo, the whole mountain is planted up to a certain height with Chinese pines, the air is pure and fresh, the walk delightful, behind St Jon’s Church there are the barracks, as I was passing the men were practising rifle drill. A little above the church is the Railway’s Victoria Terminus. At the end of the trip and overlooking some lovely chalets which had tennis courts, I stopped, and sitting on a bench, I had a lovely view of the sea and the bottom of town. All was quiet, clean, cheerful and sunny, and the harbour appeared as if it were a lake, criss-crossed by small steam boats. It is completely different from the view one gets from the Peak: on the opposite side, where there is a group of little islands, disappearing into the distance.

The Rohilla left at 4 o’clock this afternoon for Shang-Hai, with the majority of passengers; I went aboard to wish my companions God Speed and after having left my chaise-longue at the “godown” I went to do a tour of the Commercial
district in a bay the other side of the landing stage. There is a factory there worked by “pig-tails, it is a Chinese village where there are marine workshops. Coming away from the quay one crosses the barracks which are quite extensive. Kowloon Hotel where there are azaleas and other flowers in pots, magnificent Chinese carnations; the way is long and pretty all along the coast. The town is entirely Chinese, large multi-storied houses with writing of all sorts, flowers , orange trees, in pots at the window, bearing fruit.

Tuesday 20th March 1894. I saw everything of interest in Hong Kong, the day after the departure of The Rohilla Mr Edward Ackroyd, Hong Kong’s Second Judge and Dr John Bell came to see me at the hotel (Windsor Hotel), the next day I went to see Mr Ackroyd in his office, he has done all he can to make my stay here agreeable. He had enrolled me into The Club where one can read every newspaper going, and where there is a magnificent library on the upper floor. We had lunch together at one o’clock; The Club is very fine; it is opposite the Courts of Justice, in Queen’s Road.
Friday 23rd March 1894. On board the “Sydney, a mail boat, I left Hong Kong on the 21st at midday after a stay of nine days, I spent the whole time at the Windsor Hotel, on the corner of Queen’s Road and Ice House Street. I dined once at Mr Ackroyd’s where I met the young Edwards, a young naval officer who was born in Mauritius. Twice I had dinner at John Bell’s home, up the hill, in a house behind the “Naval Hospital”, he lives with two friends, Army Officers, in a suite of rooms in a large block. The rooms are large and comfortable but they are at the very top of the hill and one has quite a long climb to get there.. Mr Ackroyd lives with his wife at 2, Windsor Terrace. Bell’s office is in the Praya which is the road facing the landing stage. Saturday 16th, I left at eight in the morning on board the Powan for Canton. At Canton I embarked at Macao Dock. The Powan is a river boat with large cabins on deck, a good dining room in the middle and a heaps of space for the passengers between-decks, this boat is used mainly to take passengers from Hong Kong to Canton three or four times a week, it can carry up to 1500 passengers at a time; it also takes fresh fish to Canton, this boat is very convenient because of its size and the space it has to move around in, it is a river boat which does not draw enough water to stay at sea. We took nine hours for the crossing and arrived at 5pm Saturday, we left again at 10am Monday, which made it possible to see the town during the whole of Sunday. Canton is the commercial city of China. There is a lot of industry and many traders of all sorts. The sights from Hong Kong are quite interesting.. One sees many islands of all sizes during the crossing. Those at the mouth of the river have defensive cannon, the crest of the mountains are planted with a line of trees, the hill bare, and one sees craters in the mountain where cannon can be hidden. These forts are under the command of the mandarins. The sea is scattered with boats and junks of all sorts, with their large high sterns, containing the living quarters of the boatman and his family; the sail is large and square and there is a long pendant at the mast-head. One meets all sizes in the river as well as at open sea; there boats are made completely of wood and varnished. The riverside is flat-land, with mountains in the distance. All along there are rice-fields. Sometimes the river divides and one is surprised to see junks, as if they were sailing on land. One also occasionally sees the odd steamer, of quite small tonnage, descending the river, also Chinese river-boats but quite small ones. At the entrance of Canton one sees almost exclusively large boat-houses, painted in all colours, they are against the shore and rarely move. The small boats are usually covered with three roofs in willow-cane one above the other finishing in a point: they are steered by a long oar at the stern, the end of which is attached to the bottom of the boat by a rope, very small children and women steer these boats; as these people live and die on their boat, the children are always aboard, even when very small. Their mother restrains them from the back with brightly coloured braces, or with a cord fixed to the top of their bedding. In the evening all these little boats come into a semi-circle near to the landing stage where they light their fires and cook the evening meal; there are traders going hither and thither with ready prepared meals, crying out all the time advertising their wares while steering their boats. The women specially have a rhythmic dancing movement on the platform from which they steer the boat. The customs boat with the yellow flag depicting a dragon which is about to swallow the sun, their Chinese crew dressed as policemen playing a card game with cards marked as dominoes go up and down the river, sometimes with a European head.
The trip from Canton costs five dollars and as much for the return; in total it covers 90 miles. We go through Wampou before arriving at our destination. This town is small; there are only a few Chinese boats, some tombs on the hill, a customs house and a few buildings. What strikes you on the approach to Canton is the Roman Catholic Church which is superb with two huge bell towers and enormous size. It was built at great expense by a bishop during the reign of Napoleon III; the number of Christians in Canton is too small for such a large church. In the town and on the approaches there are large pagodas which go straight up with many stories, they are seen from far-off. One sees building after building in the town, all square and built of stone; they are secure warehouses where goods are held in transit or kept under guard. They are seven or eight stories high and fireproof, there are all sorts of merchandise stored there. The town has a circumference of six miles and the shops and houses although very numerous have no architectural merit. The colour of the river at its mouth is very dark and gets more yellow as one approaches Canton. The town is dark and the sky around is very grey. The town extends further on the left bank; that is where the English and French quarters are that were ceded after the 1857 war, where both allied countries took a strong interest in this town.
On the evening of our arrival I took a guide who took me across several roads. I saw Chinese jewellery being made on which were stuck or encrusted pieces of blue feather coming from parrots, this work is done with the aid of a small stick pointed at both ends with which they take each small piece of feather which is placed on the jewel. In another workshop they were painting on rice-paper, painting of all sorts. The town roads are narrow and the houses tall, the pavements are wide, the shop-fronts are festooned with painted boards, narrow, covered in Chinese writing. The shops are perfectly stocked with merchandise of all sorts, huge sacks of rice and other grain open and exposed for sale. Beautiful decorated counters sculpted with representations of trees and birds, large pieces of roast pork, hams, ducks thighs and roast ducks, dried rats, vegetables and pieces of sugar-cane, rotary grill on which all sorts of foods are cooked, which they sell to passers-by by the bowl; fried foods and roasted nuts, from all this rises a smell which is not unpleasant in some places.
Nuwara Eliya, Ceylon, 4th April 1894. I left Hong Kong on 21st March at midday on board the Mail Boat “Sydney”, at the same time as the “Empress of Japan” left for Japan with Mr Robinson, the present Governor and the missionaries from the “Rochilla”. After settling my account with the old German, manager of the hotel, I took a “sampan” to go aboard. I had left my arm-chair at the dock in Kowloon and took another sailing “sampan” to go and fetch it; on its return the mast got caught up with the anchor-chain and broke at deck-height, which really frightened the small Chinamen on board. I bought my ticket at 10am on the day of mail boat’s departure, and had the good fortune to have a good four berth cabin to myself, the other three bunks were reserved from Singapore only. This vas lucky as other passengers from Saigon to Singapore had to make do as they could.
The Sydney is a lovely ship with a good first class saloon and lots of space, but the deck was more or less blocked with arm chairs and cane furniture of all sorts, which got in the way. The captain was hardly to be seen, he is a very pleasant man who stayed most of the time lying out on his lounger near his cabin. The Doctor is very good on the piano and played for us every evening. We have on board, as passengers, some English, French and some Spanish. I took passage in second and found myself very well served., I was at the end of a table and had opposite me Mr Doulin, a young mechanic off a boat from Hong Kong returning to France, he was not very aristocratic, I had at my side the wife of an inspector of the French Police, a good large brunette, who went to sit at the other end of the table near the officer who sat at the head of the table with the arrivals from Saigon. I did not lose out by her move as I now had as neighbour a very pleasant Breton, Mr Vaissier, a good companion, who spoke much of Cochin China where he had lived for five years. We were therefore a convivial group of men and there was quite a lot of laughter.
———-ooooooooooooooooooooo———–

Page 35[i] He starts in Ceylon (nowadays Sri-Lanka) He refers to India or The Indies which in those days covered the whole Indian sub-continent. Partition ie the separation of Pakistan and Bangladesh from India took place after the Second World War. I have translated “The Indies” as “India” throughout

[ii] Present day Mombai

[iii] Remember that Edgar had servants himself, he well knew their duties. Slavery was abolished in Mauritius about 100 years earlier

[iv] Blue ,white and red, the Revolutionary colours of France

[v] At this time men probably wore nightshirts in bed; pyjamas were probably not well known

[vi] No word about Christmas or New Year which is much celebrated by the Scots

[vii]Should be “Syne” meaning———

[viii] “Messageries” meaning the ship that carries –usually the post, and hence a regular scheduled service

[ix] “English” is used but “British” is more appropriate:The Scots and Irish had a large part in this history

[x] Maybe a pigmy stag?

[xi] This could be an ornamental pond, it is not clear if the hollow has water in it.

[xii] There is blank here

[xiii] Sand was used to dry ink after writing

[xiv] Probably Asquith

[xv] Which war?

[xvi] Surely here is meant Queen Victoria

[xvii] Muslims do not allow any effigy, so the chiselling will be stylised Arabic script from the Koran

[xviii] One from the French department of Bretagne which clearly Mr Lee was not. What is meant is a “salt of the earth” character.

[xix] Hindus believe in fate and have little fear of death.

[xx] Possibly a batman

[xxi] Meaning I think a full size effigy of a man

[xxii] The East India Company was the British trading company, the Compagnie des Indes was the equivalent French company. There was bitter competition between the two and the history of India was largely determined by these companies and their trade

[xxiii] This would be a powerful symbol of British supremacy. The Lion is the symbol of The British Sovereign and the globe the world

[xxiv] A well known Mauritian name

[xxv] [xxv] The original says “Bsh. India Cy”.

[CCdeC1]Shall we just say “native dress” or is there an equivalent wird?

[CCdeC2]Moubray is a relative of the de Chazal family. Which one is he can anyone help

[CCdeC3]I am not sure, perhaps the guns bore down on them from some distance

[CCdeC4]I an not sure of this as it comes on the corner of the page and I cannot read the original

[CCdeC5]A type of stone?

[CCdeC6]Pot-belly?

[CCdeC7]Is this The ganga or The Ganges?

[CCdeC8]Not in my dictionary, a flare perhaps?

[CCdeC9]On page one or two I thought this was a wood of sorts. In this context it appears to be a dhoti. I suggest clothes

[CCdeC10]Strictly an awning, can one say a shutter in this context? Or railing?

[CCdeC11]Equipages

[CCdeC12]Cabaille

[CCdeC13]trouser ;single sheet of cloth drawn through the legs

[CCdeC14]Indian clerk

[CCdeC15]Old French “courre” probably hunting with dogs.

[CCdeC16]Father or son?

ENGLISH VERSION

EDGAR de CHAZAL

MY DIARY

SATURDAY 16TH DECEMBER 1893. I left Mauritius yesterday with René for a short pleasure trip in India[i] where I hope to see something of the country. It is my first sea voyage of any consequence. I have bought my return ticket to Colombo, from where I will set off for Madras[ii] and from there I will decide my itinerary.

We left the port at 6 o’clock after the departure of the last train which took my father, my mother, André, Alix and Mark to Vacoa, there was a swell, and we were a little upset by the parting. We were immediately sat at table, and after dinner we went on deck with Aga Hassan whom we befriended, to see the beam of the lighthouse and the lights of the town, we chatted until ten o’clock, Aga Hassan is a very agreeable man, we would never have had so much fun without him. The officers on board are not very sociable, they take us for foreigners and hardly speak to us. We breakfast at nine, lunch at one and dine at six, tea,etc., the food is not the best, whereas the service is done well by Indians in cabaye[CCdeC1] with blue and white turbans. The captain is a hopeless individual, a rough hooligan, with whom we will have little contact.

FRIDAY 17TH SEPTEMBER 1893 I take up my diary again today, at the Buckingham Hotel in Madras. The whole voyage, since the last date, I have written to my father, from the different places we have been. It will be rather disjointed, but I now resolve to write it as I go along and hope to keep to my promise.

The weather has been splendid for the whole time, from Mauritius to Colombo; we only had just a little rain before our arrival at this last port. We had as a fellow traveller, Mr Dangerfield who is a commercial traveller who is selling galvanised sheet metal throughout India. He is excessively full of himself and to give himself extra importance he says that at one time he intended to stand as a member of Parliament. Aga Hassam, with whom we were very friendly on our departure form Mauritius, cooled a little, but we have left each other on very good terms, There was a possibility of a voyage with him to Baghdad, but since then I have just about renounced the idea of this trip. We will see each other in Bombay. The Warora is a good ship for the traveller, the deck is in the centre of the ship and we do not feel and rolling motion. We met absolutely nothing until the Maldives which we passed very close.

The fare aboard was somewhat monotonous, always mutton chops, potatoes, toast and tea. Service and Kitchen staff are Indians and come from south of Bombay, They are not as good as those from Madras who are better cooks and give very good service[iii].The servants where I have been so far have white clothing and turbans that differ in different places; on the B.I. the turban is white with a blue stripe and a blue and white belt draped over the hips, on the French ships they have a tircolore[iv]band across the turban. All the officers are Scots as are the engineers, the crew are Indian, they are more numerous than the ships which have a full European crew.

We have not much to do during the day, we read the French papers, The Encyclopaedic Review and the Literary Review; after dinner we dressed in “Jujamas”[v] and had a chat on the deck, during the day we sometimes had a game of “quoits” with two casks and eight rope coils covered in canvas. There were solely Indians in second class, Vayapooree, the goni merchant and Michael Meek; it seems the “Warora” should have gone to Calcutta, but as they had a large cargo of sugar for Bombay they changed their destination. The telegraph wire having recently been installed in Mauritius, there had been considerable sale of sugar before my departure and the ship had a full cargo. On board I saw that one had to beware of Indian servants; Abbass’s steward came to his room while he was asleep, took the key from under his pillow and was busy helping himself when he woke up.

It took eleven days from Mauritius to Colombo, where we arrived on 26th December[vi] at six in the evening.

Colombo is a beautiful town, the streets are lit by gas and are quite wide. They put red earth on top of the macadam and beat it down with a huge roller. The lighthouse is in the middle of town and has three beams. One sees it from about fifteen miles. The roads are as in Madras lined with trees. All the buildings are in brick covered in plaster and white washed with lime, with arched doors. The first building one sees on disembarking is the Oriental Hotel which has three stories. It is one of the tallest buildings of the town, one sees it from afar, and we went there after disembarking to leave our cases there until our departure for Kandi. Country estates are some way out of town, toward Slave Island. Travel is mainly in a “pousse-pousse” (rickshaw), small two wheeled vehicle with a fan, very sensible and pulled by natives, and they go great distances in these vehicles. The rooms in the Oriental Hotel are large, René and I were on the second floor, our rooms gave onto the road, each has his little balcony separated by a trellis, despite having the awning down it was hot., I suppose it was because we did quite a long walk after dinner; in India one should not go for a walk apart from very early in the morning. This hotel is very expensive, they have a tariff and charge you for each meal, for the room, tea, bath, etc and this comes to a tidy sum. In these hotels one gets a much better rate by the month; we had to pay twelve rupees each for the 24 hours, and they charge only five rupees a day if it is taken for the month.

He dining room is high ceilinged and airy, with a gallery at first floor level below the vaulted roof, large punkas above the tables. There is a long veranda the whole length of the seaward side, everyone lounges in arm chairs and there is much greenery around the columns. After dinner we saw a Mr Painten whom we had met at a tennis party at home, a blond with a bit of a limp, he is here on business. The main thoroughfare is very long, it starts at the dock or the Port Office, passes in front of the Orient, The Bristol hotel, the barracks, and turns at the railway, one passes the barracks and the Colombo Club to get to the Galle Face Hotel, this hotel is on the shoreline; in front there is a long promenade, in stone, with benches, and the road is between the promenade and the Club, in front of which there is a very fine lawn; all this is very fine in the evening, in moonlight. It was to the Galle Face that we came to on returning from Kandi, we were comfortable and only paid six rupees each, but this only by bargaining with the hotelier.

The port of Colombo is formed by a long jetty which terminates in an oval on which stands a lighthouse. The largest steamships have access to the quays, this port seems to be a meeting place for the numerous shipping lines having business interests in the Indies, they get coal here at much better rates than elsewhere, and trans-ship their cargoes. When we disembarked the sea had quite a swell as the wind came in the entrance to the port. It is odd to see the native boats; they are called “catamarans” or something of the sort. They consist of a tree trunk which is attached to another smaller by two triangles; there is a little cabin in the middle in which to sit. This boat holds its’ own in the highest seas and cannot capsize. On our arrival an Austrian boat with many passengers was departing for Calcutta. If we had arrived just a little earlier we could have embarked on it to go to Madras where René was in a hurry to get to because of his work.

Learning that The Eridan of Messrs Marmes line was departing within a few days, we went aboard to reassure ourselves and it is on this ship that we have travelled to get here.

The Singhalese are a race of men gracious in their ways, very effeminate, who wear a long piece of cloth either checked or white round their thighs coming down to their ankles. They tie their hair to the back of the head and comb it with a round comb. Most wear a European coat buttoned up to the neck, many have no covering. The majority shave the chin and upper lip. Instead of a coat some wear a ladies shawl, chequered, so if seen from the back one could take them for women. Nearly all those who have any education become Christians.

The day after arriving in Colombo we took the train to Kandi which is four hours from Colombo. At the terminus we were given excursion tickets for half price because of the Christmas holidays. We holidayed there, in Pondichery and at Madras from 24th to the 2nd January; the coaches are long with half partitions, we travelled in second with civilised natives, with their long coats over the trousers. The whole country for about three hours is more or less flat then one rises gradually to 1400ft. All the time one sees wide paddy fields very green separated by “jungles” with cocoanut palms. From the hills one sees these plantations right down in the valley, sometimes in a semi-circle or in the form of terracing; tea only comes higher up, we saw practically none before the Kandi plateau; we arrived in Kandi after nightfall and went to the Florence Hotel run by a Mr Campbell, right at the end of the lake, on the hill. This hotel is exceedingly well kept, there is an awning over the veranda, supported by huge columns similar to that at the Hotel Buckingham where we were in Madras; the walls are lime washed, the windows varnished and all is clean and glistening, the dinning room is separated from the lounge by a grand arch. We have a large window with a spring loaded blind which gives onto the mountain. At dinner we met a man, who had done a tour of the cities of India and had taken photographs in the places he had been,
He spoke at length with René about expose times when taking photographs—in hundredths of a second—he took some views of the garden with us. The next day early, we went to the “garden of plants”; we went through really charming countryside where the vegetation was really superb, all along the road were native houses covered in tiles with an open veranda in front; the population of Ceylon is Buddhist, there are also many Roman Catholics, we met several young Singhalese catholic students, with black robes and red sashes. The catholic religion suits the natives better; the ceremonies touch their spirit more. In India missionaries wear mainly white robes with a black tricorne hat; they have been established in Ceylon for many years and do a lot of proselytising.

GARDENS OF KANDI This garden is very pretty, it is not as well kept as that of Pamplemousse in Mauritius which has a bigger variety of plants and is more charming, but here the vegetation is thicker, the trees magnificent with spacious lawns; I saw some fine specimen of fern, caladiums, anthurium, etc. The fern collection is under a rotunda covered by a roof made of coco string rope to mitigate the force of the rain. At the entrance the trees are covered with vines in flower like the ipomehma, a little further one sees a superb muscat grape vines, and a stand of bamboo palms, which here they call “The Mauritius Palm”; we took photos of two magnificent India Rubber trees with huge roots in the shape of blades that come right down to the path. The bamboo stands are superb, they are separated one from another, each one isolated, and it is great to see the plumes of leaves rise towards the sky. The Singapore palm is a very fine tree which has huge leaves like the “latanier” and which dies after flowering, another type of palm or pandanus has flowers in the shape of corkscrews, that is to say that the leaves are tight up against each other and twist round the trunk. There is a good looking lake or rather the river is wide on one side, where there is a fine lawn surrounded by trees; the river surrounds the garden on three sides which has an area of 150 arpents. The paths are covered in fine white gravel, a type of marble or granite. On our return, to the right of the garden we saw a bush covered in beautiful pink flowers touched with yellow at the tip, they seemed like the flower of an orchid.

We also visited, after leaving the Peredenya Gardens, a tea factory.

KANDI —-CEYLON

This is how one sets oneself up to make this drink. Women pick the leaves and put them in big baskets; the leaves are put to dry in a room with shelves, they are spread on the inclined raised platforms separated by blocks. The room is closed up and a metal wheel is set up at one end on the room so as to establish a draft. After 24 hours the leaves are thrown to the floor from where they are transferred to a grinder where they go through rollers and are crushed, from which they are passed through a hot-air box, and the tea is made To separate the smaller leaves, or the best, from the larger, they are passed through a steam operated sieve or winnower and it is separated into four qualities.

Colombo: We left Colombo on Friday 29th December at midday on board the

Eridan, a ship of the Mess. Maritimes Line. We travelled with Mr George Russel, a high government official who was going to Madras, many Americans and a Turk. The doctor is a little hunchback who was very pleasant; the second officer was in charge of the ship, the captain being ill in Colombo. The cooking was excellent and the change of food very welcome. We disembarked at Podichéry on Sunday night in beating rain, and went to the Hotel de Paris, run by a native who gave us a ghastly dinner; we met some Scots there who stayed up to see in the New Year, on the stroke of midnight they kicked up a racket by singing “Auld Lang Sign”[vii]. In the morning we did a tour of the town. All the principle buildings are on the coast, which is almost straight, there is no harbour, only a jetty, the boats are manned by natives, almost nude, complete savages, their oars are made with a pole at the end of which they tie a round piece of wood.

.

Monday 1st January 1894 Madras looks rather sad when on enters port. The buildings are in red brick, granite and stone; all this is red with dust and gives it an uncared –for look. The best looking building is the High Court of Justice, which has many domes and pointed roofs. On arriving we went to the Empress Hotel run by a native, the next day

Tuesday 2nd January we went to Buckingham Hotel Parapet. We saw Moubray[CCdeC2] who had just arrived at Binny & Co on the scheduled service[viii]

3,4,5,6,7, & 8th January 1894. We stayed in Madras, nearly every morning we went to meet Moubray and did a little pleasure walk with him. In the evening we went to the Marina where all the best people of the area went to meet each other. Life is quite expensive in Madras, one cannot go out on foot and cars cost a lot, and the hotelfromRs120 to Rs150, with Rs.300 per month one could just manage. I left Madras on the 8th January on the 6pm train for Hydrabad, after saying goodbye to René. From Madras to Hyderabad there is nothing of interest to be seen in the way of countryside; all the area near the town is waterlogged and rice is planted, the next day I found that I was in a completely different country, the soil is very sandy, and the countryside very flat, one just about see, here and there, a denuded hillock, and one sees plantings of Indian wheat, oats, linseed, etc, as far as the eye can see.

The railway is very convenient, it was cool and I slept well, we had supper at Arkonam, lunch at Guntakal junction, early evening meal at Nadi and I arrived in the evening of the 9th at Secunderabad, where I went to the Decaen Hotel, after visiting the Golconde tower, the king’s tombs, the Fuluknama, chateau of the first minister son of Sir Salar Jung Bahadoor on the hill, the town of Hydrabad, the lake, the home of Mr Powden. I left on 4th January at 10 in he evening for Bombay.

12th January. Arrived at Poona at 01.10 in the morning, I set myself up at The Napier Hotel from where I will leave tonight at 10 for Bombay. This morning I went to the mosque of Parbati on the mountain, from where I have come at midday for lunch, the heat was atrocious and I much appreciated my bath. I am now going to see a bit of the town.

Bombay 17th January 1894. The route to follow from Bombay to Calcutta via Ahmedabad: Aboo Road, Jeypoor, Rewari, Ferezopore, Lahore, Umritgar, Saharanpur, Delhi, Agra, Cawnpore, Lucknow. Benares, Calcutta. B.B &C.I Ry Colaba Station 9.30pm. Ahmedabad 9.50am. Aboo Road 3.58pm. Jeypoor 5.15am. dep.Rewari 12.15pm. N.W Ry. Ferezopore. 4pm. Raewing Jn. 5.42. Lahore 7.10pm, dep3.35pm Amritsar 4.54pm. Saharanpur 2.37am. Delhi 07.50am Delhi d.11.25am. Agra 12.5pm. B.B & C.I.Ry. Agra 2.04pm. Cawnpore 6.20 Cawnpore 6.45 arrived Allahabad 11.00 and Benares 12.38pm. Benares 1.16pm. Mogul Sarsi 1.42pm dep2.9pm Hawarah (Calcutta) 5.45am.

Ahmedabad Friday 19th January 1894. I left Bombay yesterday after a stay of five days in the town and I arrived here this morning at nine o’clock with Messrs Durfort and Bagneux. Ahmedabad is an old town entirely oriental which has seen days of splendour. It is now a little abandoned although the population is still dense. The town is surrounded by walls and near enough to, seen from Jumna Musjid mosque it seems to cover a large area but is somewhat sad due to the cloth coverings. The town was constructed by The Sultan Ahmed about 500years ago and the tomb of this powerful monarch is in sculptured marble and is to be found in a building in the centre of town, quite close is buried his son and grandson, these mausoleums in marble are very finely sculptured and are covered in large drapes embroidered with gold. Straight after lunch we went to see the Jain temples at the entrance to town. This temple is composed of long buildings on all four sides, over which are a quantity of small domes culminating in points, these buildings which follow each other forming a perfect square contain rooms closed with a grill door through which one can see a seated marble Buddha with crossed feet as are his hands, he has very bright eyes and his mouth is painted pink. On each side there is what appears to be a god; along the whole length there is a row of columns which supports a veranda formed of arches and at the top of the columns there are “dancing girls”, all along this corridor the Jains come to do their obeisance, throwing some grains of rice for the priest. The whole place is paved, in well worked, encrusted, marble. At the entrance to the temple a man made us change our shoes for linen ones; the priest spends his time adorning the idols with flowers and spreading sandalwood incense everywhere. All the windows are made of latticed stonework representing different designs. The Jains are people who respect animals, one sees here are in the whole country many birds of all types, squirrels that climb on the walls and follow the ranks of altars where people have been so as to recover the few grains of rice that they have left to fall; monkeys, grey blue with long tail and a black face come to the very front of the temple and one can give them egg-plant cut into pieces which one can give them by hand when you call them. They are generally in a group of 12 to 15, all the females, some with their young which are very charming, one just need to give them a piece and they sit just there beside the car, the male is much bigger and more wild. From there we went to see several small mosques which we were allowed to enter without removing our shoes. These mosques are entirely made of well cut stone which must have cost something but they are dirty and badly kept. At the side of the tabernacle they have a stone niche which contains burnt oil where the faithful come symbolically to dip their finger which they rub on their eyes.

The town is dirty and the houses more or less in ruins. The tortuous roads are narrow, but what distinguishes the place is their taste for sculpture; the frontages of all the houses are very well sculpted, they hardly know about paint, there are only one or two houses that are painted and that without oil and bright colours as seen in Hyderabad. In the afternoon we went to have a little walk at a water-hole that was a few miles outside town. At the centre there is a small island that is connected to the land by an alleyway; in the middle of this islet there is lovely garden in the centre of which is a kiosk where there is a terrace where one can appreciate the fresh air in the afternoon air, there are flowering bougainvilleas trained into spheres which look very good. We saw below us, with its head above the water, a caiman. It seems that the Jains have obtained a concession from the Government that they will not kill these animals, which they respect, and they have had to put a barrier the whole length of the promenade so they do not get onto it. The tomb of Allam Shah, an old priest of Mahomet’s time, is to be found a little further away, his seven boys are buried close by as is his brother, Mohammedans come there to say prayers. The mausoleum is made of marble and the building is circled in stone latticework. The bazaar is in the middle of town in the main square, where one can see many people who sell clothes of all colours, the country is poor and the people dirty. We were poorly lodged in a room at the station and we hardly slept.

20th January. Left Ahmedabad at 10 in the morning, we dined at Jana, a pleasant little station with a garden and creepers growing up the columns, we arrived here at Jaypoore at five o’clock on the 21st after 18 hours travel. The first class carriages are small and have three couchettes with a open platform giving onto the rails, these carriages are very pleasant in the evening; we sit on a small bench and smoke while bantering in the moonlight. The countryside is nice enough until one gets to about Aboo Road where we arrive at about four in the afternoon. From there everything is dry and desert, there is only white stone and dried out banyan trees, only we do pass between two ranges of hills which really look lovely by moonlight; we saw many stork and teal in the rice fields, quite a few monkeys and some peacocks. We had intended to stop off at Aboo Road and hire ponies to take us up Mount Aboo, but as we saw that the country was so bare we preferred to go on to see other places. All the railway stations in this area are built with domes, whitewashed with lime. The “Bombay and Baroda and Rajpootana State Railway which goes from Ahmedabad is much smaller than other lines.

Jaypoore 21.1.94 We disembarked this morning at 51/2 hrs at Dak Bungalow, an hotel run by the Government for travellers. It is very clean and one is well received, the hotel is full of travellers. We left this morning in a car to attend the Mass, it was very cool, a wonderful temperature. At the church there was only a dozen or so natives on their knees and one English[ix] family, my companions made their devotions and I looked on as an interloper, seeing the priest blessing the wine and genuflecting. The priest was a character with a long beard who finished his sermon in Hindoustani when we arrived. From there we went to see the public a garden in which is the museum. The entrance gate is well made and gilded, the paths are sandy and there are some nice lawns bordered by roses planted in different arrangements. Firstly we saw the

antelopes, deer, stags of all sorts, coming from all parts of India, deer speckled with spots, black deer with white abdomen, the pig[x] stag; then we went by an enclosed basin[xi] containing a whole lot of stones on which there were ———–[xii] with the skin of which they make furs, they have lovely tails and a piercing cry.

There was a collection of cats, a rhinoceros, a cage containing ibis and big white pelican, sultan chicken and ibis of all sizes, a tiger from Rajpootam with markings bigger and wider apart than those of the common tiger, a pair of lions which had been born in Clifton Gardens on 14th January /88, Burmese monkeys with long hair on the upper body and the lower half bare and red, black monkeys, etc, black bears of the country—from there we visited the Victoria Museum or the Institute, the foundation stone of which had been laid by the Prince of Wales in 1869. It is a large building made partly of marble and a white stone resembling marble with Hindu deities on the sides and a central dome. Everywhere in the corridors there are all sorts of paintings on the stonework, Hindu scenes, Christian, Egyptian, a large room containing the Rajahs of Rajpootana who have held the succession since 1400 to the present day with their different court dress and large sabres, all the rooms are in mosaic, and the whole building cost more than five laques of rupees, much was spent on the collections, there is a collection of Indian armour, cups made in the country and elsewhere, in bronze and worked copper, collection of works and gold thread on silk, photographs of the country, in swivelling cases made to fit the columns, collections of extraordinary marine animals made out of glass, a botanical hall with specimens made of cloth and wax in cases against the walls, in fact a whole lot of things all very instructive, what is good is that there are not all curiosities but practical things, for example a collection of local medicines, panels showing how to make wool, perspective views ,etc. On the sandboxes[xiii]mottos were written and a brochure could be bought for 4 annas. From the top of this building one can see the whole surroundings of Jaypoore which is very pretty, it is a large area and in front on the mountain above the Rajaha’s palace one sees “Welcome” written in large letters on the rock, above and on the summit is a fort and other buildings. At three in the afternoon we entered the town which is surrounded by walls like Ahmedabad. At the main gate there is a grand square and then door worked in copper, one is immediately struck by the width of the main road, the cleanliness and the local colour, all the buildings which are sometimes several stories high are painted pink with pictures of flower vases with borders and frills, windows are just big enough to put your head through, and the hindu style predominates. At the centre of town is the Maharaja’s palace. One enters via a large decorated portico painted yellow and one goes through several courtyards to get to the council chamber and banqueting hall, two huge rooms lit by gas. The road is paved

with stone dressed like galvanised sheeting, the doors are tall and entirely covered in copper. The marble council rooms are decorated in beautiful blue and gold designs. The gardens are well laid out; there are large ponds with pipes below for jets of water. There are plantings of orange and guava trees in the courtyards, a fernery, and on the left the Zenana or women’s palace. There we saw a juggler do some really good moves with batons and rings decorated with weights. At the end of the courtyard and separated by a long row of building there is a pond where we saw some caiman.

Jaypoore 22.1.94. I had a long walk with Mr. Durfort yesterday; we went the whole length of the promenade, in moonlight, under the huge trees that lead to the railway; it was relatively cold. This morning we set off for The Ameer Palace, three to four miles from here. The country is dry and the mountains have few trees. All along the road are buildings and tombs in a derelict state. When we arrived at the Ameer Gate we alighted and were photographed on the back of an elephant; we then did the remaining journey on an elephant driven with a long pick by a man dressed in white with a turban which had a long train; the animal was seated so that we could mount by means of a ladder; we were well shaken-up and the route was quite steep; all along there is stone parapet ; we passed close to the Water Palace, two large buildings built in the middle of the lake. There was a crocodile that was basking in the sun and many wild duck. The reflection of the domes on the water was quite pretty, but all this is quite unkempt and is much better in photographs that in its natural state.

The Ameer Palace is on the side of a mountain, The Maharaja only comes here on special occasions and the place is somewhat abandoned, there are many nooks and crannies, the corridors and the Kabar-Mahal in marble, rooms with accoutrements of glass and pieces of bright steel surrounded by decorations of flowers, these rooms are supported by columns with the base in sculpted marble and there are reliefs of vases of flowers on the white walls, the Zenana was pretty with open work on some large area of stone.

In the afternoon we went to the School of Arts which is a place where they teach design, painting, sculpture and pottery as well as working in bronze. Children were set to copying quite complicated designs. One group was set the task of sculpting the god Mahdeo, made of white marble lying on his back with a collar of heads round his neck, while another god, The Destroyer, made from black marble with six arms, stands on his body. At the entrance there were well made statues made from plaster. Upstairs we saw them engraving on bronze. They coat the object in lime and trace with a pencil what has to be done on it and then they scrape it with an engravers point; it is very easy to make all these things in bronze. At the far end there is a shop where all these objects are for sale. There were some fine trays in copper with wooden legs for serving tea, very fine paintings of elephant or horses entangled with women in oriental dress. It is extraordinary how many pigeons there are in town. They all come on to the main square where they are fed with grain. Jaypoore is a town of peacocks, there is a lot of them and they make a hell of a racket at night. Processions

of women dressed in all the colours of the sun go down the road singing to announce a marriage, we saw one, a whole troupe of them with the foremost women carrying trays of food on their heads. One sees in the streets lines of dromedaries carrying provisions; they have a rope through a hole in the nose which is attached to the tail of the one in front. There are also quite a few elephant that walk majestically with bells around their necks. We came across a panther with a hood over its head, led by a man.

In the afternoon we also went to visit the Rahja’s stable where there were Arab, Indian and other horses, all real beauties, they were tied by rope at the ankles front and back to stop them kicking. We got back to Dak Bungalow at five o’clock and after dinner we left for the station to catch the six o’clock train for Delhi, at 91/2 we got to Bandikni Junction and arrived in Delhi at five where it was deliciously cold.

Delhi, 23rd January /94.We are very badly set up here in an annex; all the rooms in the main building have been taken by civil servants, who live here, as well as travellers. We called at all the hotels and could find only this one. One of the hotel staff, of mixed race, offered to be our guide, he is called Collins and says he is a nephew of the tax collector who was in Delhi at the time of the revolt. After dinner we witnessed the Mohammedans doing some very interesting turns, amongst others swallowing swords and extracting stones, string etc. from their stomachs, making a small wolf, tied to a chain, disappear etc. Our first visit was to an old garden belonging to the Rajah of Delhi where the guide showed us the spot where Colonel Nicholson conducted himself so bravely in sustaining fire from a breach that the English had made in the wall, and where they wished to infiltrate into the town. The Colonel was at the forefront of his men, they went down into the ravine and with the aid of a ladder they climbed up the ramp and entered the fort, from there they marched to the main gate which they took and the troops were able to enter the town. The Colonel was killed on the road that follows the walls. These walls are made of very hard rock, very difficult to breach.. In this garden is a mosque in which The king came to pray, it is riddled with bullets and the dome is pieced. The hotel we are in is the residence of Governor Athquit[xiv] (who was massacred before the war[xv]. The place is called Ludlow Palace.

On the day of The Revolt all the British living in the town were massacred in a barbarous manner by their own servants, the last ones left wished to flee by scaling the walls. They were surprised by Indians in the school yard; there was a pond to get across and as they were unable to leave the women behind they tried to cross the pond with them, they lost time and were killed. In the town where the Post Office is was a powder store which was defended by nine Englishmen, the kept to their post for four hours, and the last had no option but o to blow it up, they rebuilt it on the same spot, above the entrance door is a plaque that tells of what happened here. At the entrance to the town there is also a marble plaque between the two gates, on which are the names of those killed and wounded.

The “Mutiny” started in 1857 in May and in Delhi lasted a month and a half, there were 2000 men killed here and all that was achieved was the capture of Shah Jahan the King of Delhi who, seeing that the English were masters of the place, flew from his palace via an underground tunnel to take refuge on the tomb of his father on the banks of the river Jumnal outside the town. The King’s palace is in the fort and has been very well built with tall walls of red stone and is strongly defended. It is all in white marble , there is the throne room, the Zenana, the bath rooms, all this with circular verandas with columns, and entirely of marble from top to bottom with all sorts of encrustations as we;; as gilding. The encrustations were of precious stones, and it was all built by an Italian. During the war the Indians took out all the precious stones of which we now, only see traces; and the English, for the sake of the appearance of the building have replaced them with painted plaster. The palace gives onto the Jumna and the countryside, and there is no wall on that side. There are only cannons in the sub-basement wall. At the side of the palace there is the mosque, also entirely of white marble. This mosque is closed by a door covered in copper and is called the “pearl mosque” because suspended before the altar there was the finest pearl that had ever been seen and it had been stolen. Also stolen was the king’s throne, known as “the peacock throne” which had been decorated with the most rich jewels and were worth enormous sums. The only thing recovered was the royal crown which bore the world’s most beautiful diamond and which is now property of The Queen.[xvi] The revolt came to an end here by the capture of the king, who was taken at his father’s tomb. As he had not been the main agent of the revolt and had taken no part in it, they sent him to finish his days in Rangoon where he passed his days pleasantly with enough money and all his comforts. The two sons who had taken an active part in the revolt were killed by Captain Hutson. This is how the most powerful Indian King, to whom other Kings came to give homage, came to finish his days. At the centre of the fort is The King’s Courtyard, where he meted out justice. His throne is chassed into the wall about eight feet up and is made of marble. Against the wall there are settings of precious stones representing parrots and other birds. The prime Minister stood before him, in the middle of the room on a marble pedestal and the individual who had requests to make on the step outside; one gets to the throne by means of a “private entrance”, through which the prime minister passed when the kings wished to se him. The whole room is in red stone, it is long with columns and the paving in a stone unique to the country, red with flecks which is called “sandstone”. At the entrance to the fort, or the “Lahore Gate” we were saluted by Sikh guards, fine looking men with red turbans, with big overcoats because o the cold. The Sikhs and the gurkas are tribes very faithful t England, Sikhs come mainly from Rajpootana, and the Gurka’s from the mountains. Generally the Hindus are a quieter and more faithful race toward the English than the Muslim, but they are less advanced than they. We went to see the Cathedral outside the town walls. This church which is a massive building with a central dome was built by Colonel Spinna who gave it to the town. A commemorative plaque had been made and placed at ground level in front of the alter and all over the walls are inscriptions on marble dedicated to people who had been massacred during the war.

On some of the plaques one can see a whole series of names of whole families that were killed at the same time. The Juna Masjid, one of the largest mosques in India, is built on a hillock opposite the fort and near the civil hospital, one goes up a large step in the east and west; all around there is a big gallery and row of main alters set quite high, there is a big dome at the centre of two

smaller ones, all in marble, the far end is also in marble with rows of columns in marble. The rooms have squares denoted so that each person should have a designated space is which to pray and standing should be shoulder to shoulder with the next man, the faithful stay in rank to prostrate themselves in the direction of Mecca. On each side of this building there is a minaret about 15 feet high in three parts with a small roof supported by columns, at the top, they are constructed of “sandstone” with panels of marble from top to bottom, it is from there that the priest calls the faithful, and from there that one has a magnificent view over the whole town and its surroundings, the fort in front, to the west the “iron temple, the huge Hindu temple, the old forts, and the tomb of king Humayan, to the south, the town extends to the north, to the east and west, all the houses have balconies and flat roofs, from that height one hears the all the noise of the town, in the north west in the distance the Kitub Minhar throws it’s elongated pointed steeple into the sky and it is the single building in the immensity of the plain, the church, the Lucknow castle, The War Memorial, The Flagstaff are to the east, the countryside is vast and is cut by the sacred river Jumna which crosses from the south

24th January, My two companions left this morning on the 6.20 train for Agra, and I stayed behind so as to be able to withdraw a little money from the National bank of India. After lunch I took a car and went into town, after which I went to the “memorial Building” or Mutiny Memorial, an octagonal tower built on a three tiered platform with galleries, and inscriptions on marble of the names of those who lost their lives during the war, and lists showing the regiments and the numbers of Europeans and natives killed in each., this building and the others I saw are along The Ridge, or circular Road, the country being flat, from the top of this building one can see the town very well. From there to Askar Pillar, which is very old, before J.C>, but is not very interesting, Hindu Rac’s House, which is now used as an hospital, and besides which is a huge reservoir, The flagstaff, a tower superimposed on a larger one and from which one gets a very pretty view; it was very cold and I was obliged to wear my overcoat the whole time. I crossed the road with a Bishop and his secretary that we had met in Jeypoore and here.

Delhi is a large town and there is a lot of movement. We visited a boutique where they made minute objects in ivory, and they paint landscaped and figures on ivory, very beautiful carpets and embroideries. At the entrance to the town near Cashmere Gate there is a big square planted with grass divided into squares, bordered by large trees, principly mins, a tree with a yellowish leaf. One sees many of the trees sacred to the Hindus which looks a bit like the banyan, they say their prayers underneath them and from branches they hang “chatties”, or terracotta pots full of roasted grain or full of water, for their dead, I saw one near the Delhi Gate that was quite big and grew out of a house. The Sikhs soldiers are very fine men, they wear beards and have

uniforms braided with red. Some have a weapon or curved very sharp knife which they keep in their turban with which they can, with ease, slice off a mans’ head from a distance. The population is for the most part Muslim, they

have mosques in all the roads, and that of Jumma Masjid is the most beautiful in all India. Leaving Delhi it stays in sight from some distance. The next day after lunch we visited Ktub Minhar about 11 miles from the town. We passed through Lahore Gate out of town and got out to follow the wall to see an inscription dedicated to Colonel Nicholson marking the spot where he had both legs shot from under him by the enemy as he advanced to take a cannon., following this he died eight days later. On this ancient wall one can walk and do a complete circuit of the town. Along the way we stopped to see the tomb of Sadar Jung, prime minister of the Mogul King, which was his home before his burial. On the road we met people from Kashmir wrapped in their bed covers padded with cotton, their teapots and other household utensils tied round their waists; they had come to sell their furs in Delhi and were returning. They have a sort of Chinese look not altogether pure, and spoke only Hindustanni, there were women among them, they travelled on foot.. We travelled through a countryside made up of tombs, buildings with individual domes some way one form another, containing the remains of the princes of royal blood, all this countryside is only ruins of ancient towns and forts, within some of the old walls the natives have built their huts, in one of the tombs, built on a raised platform they had built a police station (near Ktub). In these little villages where the houses are built with walls made of dung the women collect the cows dung which is produced in quantity because of the numbers of these animals and against all the walls are piled up cowpats which are used instead of firewood, the heat is slow and intense and is much cheaper than firewood. We came across quite a few green parrots, owl eagles and blue parrakeets. In this region they plant rye, gram, cotton, rape ( a plant with a yellow flower that cheers up the countryside) at Ktub Minhar we had tiffin at the State bungalow where they gave us fresh boiled rice and a good curry on the veranda of the hotel which is separated into two buildings made of masonry covered in thatch. There we met the Bishop we had seen in Madras, an Italian who travels with a little seminarist and whom we had met later in Agra, a character with a long beard. The Ktub Minhar is an immense minaret which rises four stores made of sandstone with mouldings along its length and Arabic inscriptions all around, on each floor there is a circular balcony which that follows the walls of the building and which one gets to by climbing 328 steps. At the summit there is a cupola that had been turned upside down by a thunder ball and that had been set up again and placed to one side on a heap of stones. From the top of this building on takes in a immense area of country and one can see the Jumma on the other side of Delhi, it has a welcome cool day, with a small breeze. From the top of this tower the Queen who could not go to the river to wash away her sins in the sacred river could say her prayers while looking upon the Jumna. The good woman belonged to the noble class of Hindu and did not go to the river because it was dangerous to travel in the countryside. At the base of this minaret there were the ruins of a Hindu pagoda with marvellous drawings and sculptures, but they are in red stone and are in a poor state. A series of columns, immense doors damaged by the weather and in the middle of the enclosure a large iron column which is The King’s baton, sign of his power.
On the other side is the tomb of a Muslim priest-saint in marble chiselled in relief all around and above[xvii] and to one side a huge entrance door to the square set with incrustations on red stone. This area was owned by Hindus originally and latterly a place for the Mohammedans who conquered the territory and who covered the place in all these inscriptions from the Koran. A little further we saw some fellows jump from a great height into a well down which we could go by a long series of steps. One saw them jumping from above, through holes made in the wall, the height was more or less 50 to 60 feet and they followed one after the other. To one side are the tombs of the ancient Kings and their Ministers, an area surrounded by lattice work marble walls. From there we went to see the tomb of Humayan, a Mogul King, father of Ackbar, Aurmagzib, Shah Jean and Shah Bahadour. It is a magnificent building raised from the ground, with a big square in front, a huge hall in the centre, a second story and rooms in the corners. The central room where Humayan and his wife are buried is a single hall with windows at first floor level. It is on the banks of the Jumna, there is a surrounding wall and a garden.. Returning to the town we passed the old fort of Delhi where there is a mosque, a very large entrance gate which is at the top of the slope with high walls. It is here that Humayan died, thrown off a balcony. We entered the town by the Delhi-Gate and went by the district where I had a Turkish bath with massage, it was delightful. In a large closed and heated room black men throw hot water over you and pummel you in all directions, then they spay you with cold water then icy water, you then return to the room where you undressed, which is covered in mats, you cover yourself well and go back by car all nice and warm; there were seven or eight of us in the room which is paved in marble and provided with pools of hot water on the wall opposite the door, and a cold shower below. In the room where we get dressed there are canapés and they give you tea, coffee and cigars. While we there a Bishop, from one of the southern provinces, came in and an Italian with a big beard.

Agra 27th January /94 My two companions left the Empress Hotel on the 25th (Ludlow Castle) on the 6.20 train, I caught them up at the Nothbrook Hotel by taking the 3.15 afternoon train, I arrived here at 1 o’clock in the morning. Leaving Delhi I crossed the Jumna on the Iron Bridge, it was necessary to take the train on the opposite platform and cross the rails by the pedestrian bridge, the station master was a big rude man with a strong voice and a huge nose, he had the look of a Jew, he shouted at the coolies who carried parcels on trolleys, I travelled with two Englishmen with whom I didn’t exchange a word. I dined at Aligarh in an hotel owned by a company that also does business in Toondla; the room was quite large and kept going by the English, we waited 20 minutes and my two companions left and were replaced by a man with a big beard who made himself very comfortable for the night, I lit my cigarette and went to sleep still fully dressed and telling them to wake me at Toondla, but they did nothing, and they cared little to see me onto the opposite platform. I changed into a compartment with three couchettes on either side and I did the rest of the journey with two gentlemen and an old lady who wore glasses. We disembarked at Agra fort and a big Mohammedan came to meet me and told me that my friends had arrived at the Nothbrook.

This hotel is rather badly run the kitchens poor and the beds really bad, the room that I have is big and commodious, there is quite a difference from the room in the Empress Hotel in Delhi. Our three rooms are adjoining and at the end of corridor attached to the house. The Duke of Cambridge, his wife and his retinue were here when I arrived and went yesterday. This gentleman is short and limps badly, he wears a black moustache and a big straw hat, his wife is charming. He spent a lot of money here, and the carpet seller in the bazaar in whose shop we were bragged that he had ordered £500 worth of goods from him. I was delighted to see my friends again and the first thing that Durfort asked me is what I had paid our guide Stains in Delhi. He had had a bit of an argument with him when they left; the man had refused to accept Rs6. After dinner, for Rs2, we took a guide who took us firstly to the Fort which is entered by a winding paved street; as in Delhi one has to get a permit to enter, it is here that one can find the king’s palace and the Moti Musjid. This last building is really great, one enters by means of an ornate door with Mogul style cupolas above, the steps are high and the peristyle is very well done, the interior is all in marble as are the domes, the two big cupolas and the series of smaller ones in front, at the far end, the ceiling, the paving stones and the 54 columns and the small row in front are made of marble as well as the interior courtyard, and the pool at the centre of it all, and all this in the very best of taste. The chateau is close by, at the entrance there is the Diwan-i-Kass or the public audience chamber in sandstone and marble with the throne at the at the far end on a platform that gives onto the castle itself, the frontage is encircled by old cannons set on rows in gun-ports. And the yard fenced by a grill; in front there is the tomb of the governor of Agra who died on 9th September /57 after the Mutiny. From there we went to the Aurungzib Palace, the father of Shah Jehan and we visited the apartments of his Hindu wife, this emperor had one Hindu, one Christian and one Mohammedan. The apartment of his Hindu wife is in the same style in red sandstone. From there we saw a series of rooms and then went up to the Zenana. On the ground floor there are also the baths, which are dull; the ceiling is set with mirrored glass. The effect of torch-light was magical. Aurunzib came here to see his wives bathe. At the door we saw paintings on ivory, glass covered medallions showing the royal family, Shah Jehan and Taj Mahal his wife, Ackbar, Aurungzib, Humayan, and their wives etc. The Palace is on the banks and in front of the Taj which is further along the same bank following the river bend. The women’s’ apartments show onto the river, all in marble and overhanging the river, the basements form the ramparts of the fort. We passed successively the cloak room with niches for jewels and the front courtyard, and two little buildings covered in copper, Taj Mahal’s room which is very charming with its mosaics, the marble dome and the balcony, to one side there is the marble court where the king went to see his wives play their game of “cook” (blind-mans-bluff”) on a draughts board at one end. The gallery then gives on a yard where the king watched gymkhanas and elephant fights. Then there was the private audience chamber before which there is a balcony with fine marble columns, from which the women would fish in a pool in the yard which was filled in latter; before this there is a little marble and sandstone mosque beside which is a dungeon where Shah Jehan was held prisoner by his son. All this is in large part in white marble and the women’s quarters is surrounded by marble slabs worked in lattice work On the side on which is the private audience chamber there is a pedestal in black marble where the king meted out death sentences which is set on a large terrace giving onto a large circular yard.

Leaving the fort we crossed the Jumna on a temporary bridge supported on old generators; to cross one had to pay half a rupee we then through a village to arrive at the tomb, a charming little monument in pierced marble composed of a square on which there was a smaller one decorated with cupolas, and towers with cupolas on top at the four corners. Both the exterior and the interior were inset with stones and painted with Arabic script the surroundings having lovely gardens planted with mandarin, tamarind and other trees. This tomb was built by the Taj Mahal for his father who was a Persian first minister of Shah Jehan. In the afternoon we went to visit the Taj which is a mile from the hotel, to get there one goes along a very wide road bordered by mins (that tree with the yellowish leaf again) with bungalows painted pink and roofed with thatch, and squares surrounded by large lawns, with a few trees planted at some distance from each other with bougainvilleas and other flowering vines.. Near the entrance are planted areas surrounded by mud walls with grey earth looking like sand, an old cemetery and a little village, having shops where they sold fashioned and inset objects, in marble. One enters by a double doorway, the outer door is perpendicular and is the principle door. This last door is charming. It is a big block made of red sandstone set at the base with white and black marble, the round ceiling in the middle is painted in a zigzag pattern and looks like a huge spider’s web. The little porticos on the side are painted in small squares imitating masonry, and give a pretty effect. The top is square and covered with eleven little cupolas in white marble front and back and four larger ones at the corners. On goes up by a labyrinth of rooms more or less black this brings one to a gallery above the main gate. The glimpse of the gate is magnificent, the Taj is certainly the most beautiful building I have ever seen, it is built entirely of white marble from the foundations to the highest part, and is of a purity and finish that defies description. One arrives between a double row of straight cypress trees with flowers and grass planted beneath arranged in geometric patterns with a long row of taps for the water jets and a pool of water in the middle three feet above ground level, and animated by man goldfish and water- plants,on each side cypress trees and crossing a lovely garden there are large wide pavements.. The garden is planted with trees of all sorts, grenadine trees, American Gourd trees, roses and big trees that come together in arches through wich one sees the sky in the distance and the Jumna. All this is well kept and swept clean, there are flowers that permeate the air with scent and one feels the peace and tranquillity. This garden was made by the Mohammedans and is known as God’s garden, “let none who hath not a pure soul enter the garden of God”. On an immense terrace onto which one gets by a covered step is placed ajewel of endeavour. From afar the big entry gate with its semicircular arch carved in different facets and the two doorsat the end one above the other, worked in lattice-work gives a marvellous effect. The building is octagonal with minarets on the tops of the square doors, ahuge dome in the middle surrounded by four cupolas. On the four sides the is an immense tower in white marble the blocks of which are joined by black marble

, these towers are in three slender tiers and covered with a lovely engraved cupola. On the principle gate in a huge panel are inscribed verses of the Koranin in black enrusted marble, at the base the marble has many flowers worked into it principally the “lotus flower” surrounded by insets made of different coloured stones. The interior is an immense marble dome cut in different facets, and in the centre of this large hall surrounded by an octagonal barrier in old polished marble of great beauty pierced to show a tracery of flowers of all sorts with a surround of poppies and other flowers, is the tomb of the Palace Beauty, Star of India, the adored wife of Shah Jehan the most powerful Mogul monarch.. On his coffin, laid in black marble are the 99 attributes of God and the base is incised with flowers of all manner of coloured stone. Beside her is buried the King and his tomb is equally well decorated. Guides explained all this to us and one with a very pure voice cried “Allah Jalalahah” “Allah Ackbar”, his voice of apparelled purity reverberated for half a minute, the immense marble vault gives a silvain echo that is better than I have ever heard, truly sublime.

Agra 28th January. We returned to the Taj yesterday afternoon and we will go back this evening to see the fountains. One can only stand and stare at this magnificent work of art that cost millions of rupees, more than 30 million were spent by the Kingto build a palace beautiful enough to contain the mortal remains of his adored wife, he was a happy man, he had loved, he had been loved and they lie here in peace. His wife died in 1629 in childbirth with their eigth child, the king then started to build this tomb which was only finished seven years after. From the balcony in his palace in the fort he saw the monument being built.. From the terrace of the Taj one sees the palace in front and below there is a long terrace, in red gravel flecked with white marblewich gives a very pretty effect seen from different angles. At the bottom is the Jumna which flows out of sight like a huge snake. The banks are planted simply with cereals and the water is ruffled, with a strong current. In the gardens of the Taj are men with crossbows which fire balls of hardened mud, they chase off birds of prey, this place is a haven of peace and these birds are not allowed to tarry.

Yesterday morning we went to visit the tomb of Ackbar at Secundrah. At the entrance is a majestic portico inlaid with different coloured marble, a huge balustrade with inlay on the slant all around, and many slabs with different designs here and here. There is a long avenue bordered by orange trees that lead to the tomb and at the four points of the compass there is a gate and a walkways that converge. This tomb is made up of an immense square with a terrace in the centre on which there are smaller ones with columns in the Chinese style. In the entrance hall which is bordered by marble cut with flowers, they have repainted a potion of the ceiling in arabesques bordered in gold. It is beautiful work that must have cost a lot. The Government has done this in one small corner to give the tourist an idea how things were but they can hardly be pleased to spend the money, they only do what is necessary for the upkeep of the place, All the domes and cupolas are in white painted marble. At the very top there is trellised marble, a courtyard paved with the same and in the middle Ackbar’s tomb, a large block of marble worked to the head where there is another sculpted block which had a golden ball on it, at the top of which had been set the famous Koh-i-Noor that had been taken by the Persian Emperor Nadar. The Tomb of the great Ackbar is in a darkened room at the end, with a big dome in which there is quite a good echo. In the adjoining rooms are buried the begums and other members of the royal family.

The surroundings of Agra and well cultivated. On gets there along a nice lane bordered by clumps of large trees, there are wells over which are wooden frames out of which water is drawn by oxen that work on an incline. Across the country there is an immensely wide canal which goes off into the distance and which is bordered by trees, it was cool and the travelling was very pleasant, we did not go to Fatepoor Sikai which is eighteen miles from here, it was too far away, Muttra, a Hindu village, is even further. Fateppor is an area of tombs; we had seen some good ones here and no real wish to see more. My two friends had gone to mass this morning and I was on my own here, yesterday we went to visit the archbishop and he returned the visit to the hotel, he lives close to the church or cathedral which is a good looking building with a high steeple and on the frontage marble statues placed in niches with a blue background.. We went into a little drawing room in which was a photo of the pope of the time, Léon XIII I think, the old archbishop of Agra with his big white beard and clean shaven upper lip, and the portrait of a monk, an old English priest came to tell us that the seigneur was out on his visiting round, we had no visiting card but I found in my wallet a card belonging to Durfort, and Bagneau found one belonging to René so we left those. There was a question yesterday that I should go with these gentlemen to Japan; however I don’t think I have enough money for that.

29th January /94 This morning we went to see the Jumna Musjid of Agra, a mosque in red sandstone surrounded by shops with domes mottled with ivory, at the entrance to the fort. From there we crossed the Public Garden and got out at a local shop where we saw them making embroidered cloth of gold braid on silk, then returned to the hotel for lunch. We then took the twenty past midday train for Cawnpore The station is a stone building covered in slate with two little square with decorative forged iron borders. We continued to see the Taj from the next station down the line with its minarets rising from the terrace. From the bridge that crosses the Jumna the palace with its balcony on the river is very beautiful. The countryside is always the same, quite monotonous.

Yesterday afternoon after having revisited the Jahangir Magal we went back to the Taj to have a last glance and see the water jets that are nothing very much but the toilets were good and there were heaps of people, elegant Muslim women with veils over their heads and their pantaloons, the men with gloves on, the women with their slim restricted waists. We were able to arrange to see the Nantch-girls or dancers.

30th January. Cawnpore. We are here since yesterday evening; we dined as soon as we alighted, at the station, in a big room well decorated with pyramids of tea packets, huge bottles on the bar, and five clocks giving the time in different places. After dinner we walked to The Railway Hotel, kept by Mr Lee, an old man of 70 who was in The 53rd Staffordshire Highlanders Regiment in the war of the Sepoys and who guided us this morning. He is a real Breton[xviii], stocky, phlegmatic, all white, with a ruddy complexion and blue eyes and a straight but scarred nose. He is one of those rare Englishmen who is in India and who fought against the Sepoys. He is very talkative and takes all his guests around the area. We went with him and he showed us not far from the Hotel the home of Nana sahib, the famous head of the revolutionaries. Nana Sahib or Nana Dimdepot had as a half brother Nana Ras; he was from the Maharatta Hindu, a lower caste Hindu, very bellicose and audacious. He was not pleased with the English government because they would not acknowledge his titles. Nana was the legitimate son of the King Maharatta, who had accepted him as his rightful heir. The Government would not recognise his titles, and he incited the natives against the English, and as he was exceedingly rich, he provided the funds and kept the revolt going. The natives had at their head five leaders who were: Fantitobi Nana Sahib,King of Cawnpore, The King of Oudh, Kuer Singh, King of Ara in Bengal, and the King of Delhi. The revolutionaries spread the word, by circulating cakes blessed by the Hindu priests which contained pamphlets. When the cakes had been cut the oath of fidelity to the English had been broken and they were free to fight against them. The Revolutionaries were absolute masters of the country and gave orders by couriers on horseback. They intercepted all telegraphic communication and the English who were a long way off could not send any news. At the start of the revolt Nana was in Cawnpore where there was the greatest number of English. He passd himself off as a devotee of England and gave advice to General Wheeler about the stance he should take. He was a well educated high born , rich and powerful, he was accepted into English society and went to their dances. On his advice the English were encamped in Longere a terrace of buildings newly built of which only the foundations are to be seen. Wheeler had written an order telling all the English to assemble in the “entrenchment”. Encircling this he had made a mud wall behind which the soldiers would be protected, all the women and children being in barracks. In front of the house is a well and the surrounding countryside, where the enemy was, was bare. To get water one went to the well at the peril of your life, and the people died of thirst and hunger, from cholera and madness brought on by the intense heat. Wheeler was wounded and in bed. They fought bravely and when they had to give up the main square they retreated to a smaller one. On the other side of the barricade was a well, over which they had placed a stone cross with inscriptions, where the men carried the dead at the risk of their own lives. On the other side are the rows of barrack blocks built in a diagonal line with the race course in front. Pushed to the very limits, they received a note signed by Nana in which he offered them free passage to Allahabad, so long as they gave up their arms. Wheeler accepted and they left
for the river Ganges or “Suttee Chowra Ghant” also known as “Massacre Ghant”, a place on the river where there is an octagonal Hindu pagoda with a chain that comes down from the ceiling and a stone on the flagstones.. The ceiling is painted with different figures; the outside is also decorated with quite indecent figures which were later effaced. On the front aspect are two platforms and steps that lead to the river. To the east is a long bend on which is built the car and railway bridge. Also to the east are brick platforms on which the Hindus carry out their cremations and the women throw themselves on their husband’s pyre, the ashes are subsequently thrown into the Ganges. Wheeler was quite surprised when he got to the pagoda; they entered and went down the steps. They started by embarking the older ladies and the infirm into three boats which were moored together, then others came behind, the young women and men were ordered to stay in the pagoda. Wheeler was under the awning of the quay, lying on his stretcher, everyone was to the east in the shelter of the parapet when Nana and his men, richly dressed, mainly retired sub-officers and native soldiers who had been appointed officers, they rushed the defenceless enemy and set about carnage by sword and rifle. The women were taken to Nana’s house and they were treated as will be described later. There had been cannon brought to the banks of the Ganges from some distance[CCdeC3] and the boats were bombarded as they passed. The women and children ran pell-mell into the water to get to the opposite bank and when they got close they were bombarded by cannon hidden in the undergrowth, they were almost all killed. Seven officers and sixty six men escaped and were recaptured and incarcerated in the Savadar House Nana Sahibs house on the other side of the race course. These por devils had their hands bound and could only eat a few grains of rice by leaning forward and using their mouths. When they died they were just left. A commemorative stone has been erected for them near the church. The women were taken to a house which no longer exists but on the spot is a cross in white marble on a black pedestal. This cross is to the westof the monument of Cawnpore and the Prince of Clarence, on his visit to India, a little before his death had three weeping willows and two cypress trees planted there. This house was on two floors of 16 rooms on each, the women and children were crammed in, the men in the house next door, Nana’s house was to the North, a well in the middle a large tree to the north east. The 53rd Regiment, in which was Joe Lee, came from Lucknow to the relief of Cawnpore. The bridges over the Grand Canal that is linked to the Ganges and passes close to Cawnpore and made a very good defensive obstacle had been destroyed, however the 53rd crossed on the only one remaining serviceable. There was an exchange of fire, Nana seeing that the Regiment was going to take his palace ordered the massacre of the victims, this was done in a barbaric way and too dreadful to be related in the history books. When the 53rd arrived in the house where the massacre had taken place the bodies were still warm, they buried them in the well which they ringed later and set up an angel in marble with two doves in her hand, 903 dead, women, children, old and infirm. The English took 275 Sepoys and dragged them through the blood of their victims they were then put to death at the cannon’s mouth, in rows of ten with hand tied behind their backs, under the big tree beside the well. Some

forty odd were hanged from the tree. They died with much composure[xix]. The monument is very good artistically, the surrounding wall are in stone worked in vine leaves on the inside, the railings are sculptured and posts finished with Gothic tops. The gate is in sculptured bronze, one goes down a circular staircase, on the opening of the well there is a pedestal in the same grey stone as used in the surrounding wall, bordered with a row of intertwined hearts, the angel above which has lowered eyes is a calm figure and reposes with palm leaves in her hands. To one side is a cemetery where many of the victims were buried with no inscription. Later well wishers erected a few monuments. All around the well there are cypress trees, and in front a bed of pansies of various colours. The famous tree is surrounded by a bank of earth a little larger in diameter. The garden is charming and it is forbidden bring in the horses too fast, all is done at walking pace to show respect. The monument is really imposing. We also visited the “memorial church” which is close to “Wheeler’s Entrenchment”, it is a gothic building with a huge bell, and heaps of inscriptions on marble tablets. Whole families were massacred. There is the communion table at the end, the two rows of tables for the music, inscriptions by each of the lateral doors, and rows of benches. The roof is very high and gives a strong echo; it was necessary to put a double layer of felt over the pulpit. To one side there is a building which is used as a school and has been reduced by half. It was here that many women and children took refuge. The natives set light to the roof and those that ran away were shot as soon as they left.

Lucknow, 13th January 1894. Having left Cawnpore yesterday on the four o’clock train we arrived here at 8 and came to The Royal Hotel, a fine hotel painted in white and blue with a gallery at first floop level and a huge terrace under an awning. We were delighted to meet some society ladies and men in evening dress sitting round a well laden table. The rooms are quite good with double beds. This morning we went with a man who had been a servant[xx] of Colonel Fulton du Genis, one of the principle officers in the siege of Lucknow. Firstly we went to Kaiser Bagh, an immense square with magnificent doors that had been covered with golden domes and had cost millions. It had been the palace and the Zenana of the last king of Oudh, the audience hall at the centre on the courtyard now serves as a committee room when The Viceroy comes to Lucknow. To one side is a boys college; the palace is quite well looked after with some fine well tended lawns, there are tufts of aurora vines, bougainvilleas, a whole series of f buildings on each side are not used. From there we went to the museum which has a plan of the countryside in ’87 showing the buildings around the Residence. On the ground floor there is a really huge collection of Hindu figures, gods, heads, budas, columns etc. Above one can see examples of local industry, life-size dummies of the different local Indians dressed in traditional dress of the region, specimens of Jeypoore stone, a collection of plaster statuettes and some of coloured earth, copper objects, and embroidery and so on. A little further

across some lovely lawns with big trees one gets to Baily’s Gate beside which is the treasury that contains 60 laques of rupees all around the residence and passing in front of this gate was a defensive wall nine feet high, the enemy was very close in the town where there were some fine houses which were later demolished to make way for a park: the door as well as the interior walls of the treasury are riddled with bullet holes, there is a pointed monument with marble plaques at one side of the treasury erected to the memory of the officers and native soldiers who died during the war. Further along is the entrance to Dr Farrier’s home where 30 women were locked up for six months in the cellar, and where the owner died of his wounds. The walls lizard skin and there is a little step in front. The Begam Khoti is beside an old mosque, where there were also 30 women. Nearby there is a large banyan tree, several gun emplacements and the Renan Post where the battle was most fierce. Then comes the house in which was Lady Outram, the rows of barracks and cavalry stables all in ruin. Then the Banqueting hall that had been converted into a hospital, there are flowers all around. Close by there is a well from which water is drawn by two oxen, working on an inclined plane, drag a leather bucket attached to a rope, they draw a great quantity of water in one go. After comes the Water Gate Battery on a promontory, with one large and two smaller cannon. At this point the English killed 2000 natives who tried to get though a breach, they made a sortie and took several cannon. The cemetery where Sir Henry Lawrence is buried is very close; his tomb is simple, and on a marble slab are written these words “Here lies Sir Henry Lawrence who did his duty, may the Lord have pity on his soul”. Within the area are many monument erected by friends of the soldiers killed by the Sepoys. The country round about is very fertile, there are fine fields of tobacco and vegetables, on the road that leads to Great Imambra or Machehi Bowan which is a large area with a grand entrance door at the base of which are two fish and above a crown over which is an umbrella, the emblems of the king of Oudh. The interior courtyard contains a large round, very green, lawn; one climbs up to the Imambra by a long staircase, the building is 360 feet long and has two small floors with a row of cupolas above, there is a relly huge hall inside and a veranda of the same size at the rear, all covered in cord matting with some containing shinny bits. At the centre are two tombs with balustrades covered in silver leaf, to one side there is a ghoon to Hossen and Hassen which are taken apart each year in July. In the rooms to each side there is a dias at the far end and red stone balconies which project from the arched roof. The king’s wives sat there to listen to the readings of the Koran. From there we went to the tombs of the Kings of Oudh, a place planted with lovely gardens. At the side entrance there is a large door decorated with two fish, below which is decorated with spikes. On entering the door leading to the courtyard, there is on each side a Roman[xxi] which holds a heavy chain attached to the top of the door. In the middle of the garden on either side of a long pond there is a monument representing the Taj, which are joined by a semi circular bridge. There are some lovely rose in the flower beds, and around the pond pots of clover with yellow flowers. The building at the far end is charming and contains the remains of the last king of Oudh. His wife was in Paris when she died and she is buried in the Père Lachaise cemetery. Around the tomb of the king of Oudh there are two fine German candelabras made of coloured glass that e cost an awful lot, big candelabras and shiny glass of many colours, the flagstones made of marble of a variety of colours. The public gardens are vast

with fine green lawns, in the centre are statues of white marble, a kiosk made of marble, around which there is a beautiful garden planted with many types of rose, daisies and other nice flowers.. The flower beds are arranged with different designs and the paths covered with white and green stone chippings. It appears this country is Rose country. We had seen some really good ones at the railway station, above all a wonderful spray of white ones. Railway stations are generally well kept, large square freshly painted buildings with long flowerbeds, planted with shrubs and flowers.

In the afternoon we did a tour of the bazaars. The proper town bazaar is the best. In the morning we stopped at the bazaar selling silver and articles in copper, it is clean, well kept and one sees some very fine objects, this area is just behind the Imambra, I saw some very pretty thins made of silver and copper, with black and red inlay. In one of the shops we saw some pieces in gold that really tempted me. Gold[CCdeC4] Mohurs from the time of the Indies Company. Other items from Oudh and Jeypoore, in Indian and Arabic script. A small piece from Oudh with the king of Oudh’s arms, two fish, the crown and parasol, tempted me greatly. In the bazaar of the canton we stopped off at an antiques shop where I bought some photographs and Durfort bought a painted statuette or two[xxii] representing the different castes and professions, and others in pottery but not painted. They cost about 5 or 6 rupees for half a dozen.

At the hotel we were harassed by sellers of embroidery and cashmere of all sorts, leopard skins, fox furs, sculptures. My companions very much regretted not having bought paintings on ivory , in Delhi of he Mogul Emperors, , of the, the Taj, The Jumna Musjid, and Persian women: they were very fine and showed good colours there, we found some good things in a photographer’s shop in Agra, but not here, nor at Benares we haven’t seen better or at more reasonable price. In the afternoon we went to see a dance by the Natch above a little shop, where we had to climb a steep and narrow stairway, with just enough space to pass, in the room which was really small with three sofas and a covered dais at one end, there were two musicians with sheets round their shoulders and their guitars, a little man with a triangle, our guide with his huge turban, twice as big as his head and his silver badge with the hotel sign on it, he sat on the side with the mistress of he house. The guide had tried to cheat us out of 30 rupees instead of fifteen for three girls; even then they provided only one. Neither the music nor the dance was worth the 15 rupees we actually paid. The girl was quite light skinned; her hair platted and allowed to hang down her back, a dress with a border at the bottom and in the front, with a yellow muslin wrap around her body. She had blue silk trousers decorated in gold, bejewelled fingers and feet, she was very graceful, she danced by turning one way and then the other on the balls of her feet making gestures with her arms and hands holding the end of her veil singing in a monotone all the time, Orientals have a lot of grace.

The next day, 1st February, in the morning, we took the 6 o’clock train for Benarès where we arrived at 2 in the afternoon. We made our way to Clerk’s Family Hotel, a clean and well maintained place. I was able to have a room with double bed near the little anteroom at the entrance; my companions were set up in a room in the wing to the right. There were all sorts of plants in the courtyard. The town of Benarès left us with a poor impression. It had just rained and everything was muddy; we even had rain when crossing the town and on the boat on the Ganges. Our first visit after high tea was to the Ganges, we took a coupé with two black horses, and after having traversed the Cantonment and the native part of town, we alighted to have a look at The Golden Temple. The town has quite a wide road leading to the river, the roads that give off the main one are relatively small, the houses low and made of mud, roofed in straw and tiles, the people dirty; the population is almost entirely Hindu, the town being the most holy place for them. We stopped before a paved and twisty road with huge buildings, the street is extremely narrow and one can only go down it on foot. In the street stalls they sold coloured stones of all colours, polished and oblong, “Lingams” or stones that the Hindus revere, “Poche[CCdeC5] ” shaped into horses heads, red and yellow for rosaries, rosaries of engraved beads, crowns or rosaries of yellow or white flowers to give as offerings. There are also manufacturers of gold thread, shops selling copper items and material. The first temple we stopped at was dedicated to the God Ganash, the god with an elephant’s head and four arms, which Parbatti the wife of Shiva made as a plaything into which he infused life, it is the god of knowledge. It is in stone painted in red oil-paint. These temples are filthy, all in stone and damp; water and flowers are sprinkled around as offerings. Sacred cows wander around freely. The temples are generally in grey cut stone with a central roof coming to a point with other smaller roofs seemingly coming up all around.

From time to time one sees temples made of red stone. Of the frontage there is an awning held up by intricate cut columns, in the middle of this awning is placed the lingam set in the middle of a round stone with a handle. Inside the temple is an effigy of the god to which the temple is dedicated, it is painted red and encircled with collars of flowers. Somewhat further we saw the temple with the golden roof, which cost millions, there is the central roof which is quite large and another beside it which shine with gold, the one on the right on entering is not covered in gold, the Rajah’s successor ceased the practice. Inside the temple is the sacred well. The story of this well is that the Muslims had built a mosque really close. This caused considerable controversy and later they closed the mosque and the god Shiva jumped from the top into the well close by, which became sacred because of this. Offers of flowers and cash are made to a Brahmin who sits on the side of this well which is surrounded and covered with offers and sacred water. In one temple or pagoda sacred cows circulate freely and make no effort to get out of your way to let you pass.

Hindus have the greatest respect for the cow; recently there was a very bad incident when a Muslin killed a cow in front of some Hindus, they do not forgive that sort of thing, they prefer Christians to any Muslim because the former kills his ox in private and respects their religion whereas the Muslim is unrelenting.. We were taken through the whole Temple complex on the banks of the river by a Brahmin of high caste with his sacred string; our guide is himself a Brahmin of high caste, he is short and fat like all Brahmins, a real Hindu head with his rotund figure, a poutou[CCdeC6] tightened and a tunic with large red stripes, a European over jacket in satin-wool and a big straw coloured cap part of which falls over the nape of his neck. Coming out of that, we made our way to the sacred river, we descended an uneven slope which was slippery after the rain. The bank is set with long red stone used for construction. The Ganga[CCdeC7] is fairly shallow but despite that is very wide; at times of flood it rises 15 to 20 feet and sweeps away the weirs which are built to deepen the water. The Ganges is sacred because it flows from Shiva’s hair. The buildings that line the river are for the most part palaces of the different Hindu Rajahs, and different pagodas. These palaces are large and made of grey stone with balconies and towers. Many terraces of steps lead down to the river. On the water there are large platforms built on which the Brahmin sit under huge sunshades made of platted palm leaves. It is there that they carry out their rituals and say their prayers. There are barges carrying wood and stone. For passengers there are boats powered by three or four rowers, in the centre of which is a surprisingly spacious cabin., on the bridge, the cabin is surrounded by sun blinds that can be rolled up, they provide chairs and one is quite comfortable; when the weather is good one sets oneself up on the poop deck to take in both banks. The opposite bank is bare. In getting back to the bridge that crosses the river to the west one has to descend to the place where the Nepali Temple is situated, this is strangely carved on the cornice made of wood; the main door is also in carved wood, the temple has a small second story in the Chinese style.. A little further on one can see large carved stone idols lying in the middle of the bank with their legs stretched out and their big heads painted, wearing a moustache having wide open eyes and a square cap.. These are Vishnu’s father and other gods that they pray to. Further along is the place where the Brahmin live, before that comes the spot where cremations take place. We were there as night fell. The ceremony is interesting. The body is wrapped in white cloth and sprinkled with rose-water, like that which is used on Indian feast days, the pall bearers sing all the time on their journey. They come down and lay the body in the water until it is soaked through. Then they withdraw the cloth and water the face, they then replace the cloth and place the body with its feet in the water. The sad task of lighting the pyre falls to the closest relative whose duty it is. The pyre master is a priest; the corps is laid on the pyre and covered in faggots. The relative then enters the room which is to one side and built on a higher terrace. In which is the sacred fire, tended by a Hindu of inferior caste who asks the price he wishes for the fire-brand. They bargain and the corps is ignored. Finally the chap returns. Before going to fetch his fire-brand he has his whole head and face shaved, bathes in the river, dresses in brand new clothes, which he will wear for six days, during which time he will he will not touch anything and will do his own cooking close by, probably because he is unclean.

Thursday 8th February 1894: Darjeeling

We came from Calcutta at 3pm after a very pretty journey, I have not had the courage to write since I have been here, and it is only now that I am in a good hotel, well heated that I will put pen to paper to relate something of my stay in this town. We arrived on Saturday morning at 6 o’clock after a 15 hour journey from Benares which we left at 11/2 hrs pm. by the mail train. We dismissed our guide at the station and did the first part of the journey with a tall German wearing a large red beard whom we had met in Calcutta and whose path had crossed ours in Darjeeling. Three old spinsters were also on our train, they were travelling together going round the world, they managed very well; we met them when buying tickets at Thomas Cook’s in Calcutta. The countryside appears to be richer and more civilised in this part of India. The country is more or less the same; there are the occasional sugar cane fields, badly maintained and very small. Railway stations are clean; the line double, at each station there is a long low building on both sides, painted in dark colours, with a narrow garden along the footpath, at the end a little water tower with cornices, used to replenish the engines. Our train went directly to Howrah without any change. We stopped at Mokamah for dinner, the table is well set and the room very big. It is always Kellner Co. Ltd than holds the franchise for these buffets. At Hounah we took a palanquin below which we placed our travel rugs and cases. The station is very big but has no style. The way the Bengalis dress is with a long piece of cloth which hangs in front of the knees, an overcoat with pockets, stockings and shoes, and a cashmere rug either plain coloured or white with a red border, for the most part they do not wear hats, their hair is cut short. The approach to Calcutta is not pleasant due to the unpleasant smell that rises from the street which is continually watered and is muddy, and the smoke which is also disagreeable, Howrath is on the other side of Hoogly, on is obliged to get to the town by crossing a huge wide bridge covered with bitumen over which they have put macadam and wooden planks; There are faneau[CCdeC8] in the middle dividing the bridge into two, the river is wide and to permit ships to pass the centre span swings. The bridge master is a big Englishman with a wide straw hat, short and fat, hands in pockets. On the other side of the bridge is an area crammed with shops, the native owners are wear baggy old gonis[CCdeC9] torn and filthy, soon one gets to nice shops with advertisements and names above. The pavement is wide and the frontage is protected by a metal Marquise[CCdeC10] , they have large shop-windows and the shops are well stocked. The grand eastern hotel is in this road, the building is raised above the others and has a huge veranda on front and a terrace above, it is painted green, on the ground floor are large shops selling perishable goods. First of all we stopped off at the post office which is in Greek style with big iron circular columns, supporting a fine dome overlooking Dalhousie square, my friends picked up their poste-restante mail there, as for me I received nothing. In this road before the post office one passes close to the docks and massive government buildings. The Viceroy’s residence is a little further on. It is an immense building surrounded by a metal grill and planted with trees, a big entrance gate on either side of which there is a lion with its paw resting on a globe[xxiii], the emblem of the Viceroy wich can be seen above the gate.

In front is the Dalhoustie Square where one finds all the best shops, and following the road along the square one get to the race course and Eden garden. We stayed at the Paris Hotel, owned and managed by father Bonsard, the retired-cook to the Viceroy for whom he worked for 27 years. His hotel is in the Bazaar. The food is excellent. I shared a room with Durfort a double room with dressing room and bath at the end. Father Bonsard is a big man with an enormous belly and head buried in his shoulders. He has big eyes and a thick, head of hair, he is an interesting conversationalist. He provides the catering for all the big festivities and hunts given by foreign princes, and he makes a lot of money. He was with the Czar and the Grand Duke Alexander in Nepal for a tiger hunt, they killed 1197 animals of all kinds of which 400 wee prime specimens, many of them tigers. One hunts tiger from the backs of elephant by cornering them. He had also followed the Duke and prince of Orléans the first of whom is the son of the Count of Paris the pretender to the throne; he is lazy whereas his cousin Prince Henrie of Orléans works very hard. Father Bonsard has a chateau to the north of Calcutta from where he obtains truffles; he has a reasonable capital fortune which he has made from his work. He criticised the French considerably, all the French commercial enterprises in Calcutta had failed, whereas the German firms that were more numerous than the English were making money. He lives in a house in a little town north of Dover where he is due to go soon and where he has relatives, when he wishes he goes to spend a few days in Paris. He started by working in England where he organised dinners for 800 at a time.

On the evening of my arrival we called in at The Great Eastern to pick up Pierre Adam[xxiv] with whom we had been to the other side of Hoogley to see the Botanical Garden which is very fine. We had walked along very long avenues with very straight trees planted at regular intervals. There were fine clumps of pandanus, lawns, small kiosks and picnic areas. At the far end is a banyan over a hundred years old throwing out huge roots and taking up a lot of space; this tree is very well cared for and is really exceptional. There are also macadamia trees, tamarind and other fine trees, the branches are allowed to reach to the ground and it is very pretty.. This garden covers an area of 272 arpents, it is well tended, quiet and it is a pleasure to wander around after coming from the town. The journey back is frustrating. Towards six in the evening the natives start to light their fires and one goes through an unsavoury district where everyone is covered in rags, black with smoke and where even the air reeks. It just enters your being. The area around the garden is quite pretty, the employees houses very clean, painted and planted around with big trees. In the evening I dined at The great eastern with Adam. The room was on the third floor entered via a lateral staircase, giving onto an internal courtyard where there is an intricate system of chimneys leading from the kitchens on the same floor to the front there is a row of convenient rooms with terraces which are separate to the building itself. The dining room is in marble with beautiful, rich draperies, together we partook of a good bottle of wine and champagne, after that we went to the Royal opera where they were putting on “Maratina”, an opera where Miss Jacson, a brunette, sang extremely well, Miss Vera Pati dressed as a page was delightful, they did a dance to castanets.

The opera was about a scene in Madrid where Don Caesar of Bragance and the king of Spain were competing for the hand of Maratina; Don Ceasar was a success with a fine voice. The opera house is very small and one pays 4 rupees for a seat, the actors were quite good. I came back the next night with my fellow travellers.

The following day, Sunday, I accompanied Pierre Adam to Chandanagore to see Mr Doorga, a rich Hindu merchant who spoke excellent French. His right hand man, a Frenchman, came to pick us up at the hotel and we joined Captain Fleuriot and his lieutenant de la Fraternité in his office. Mr Dourga arranged to have us taken in his coupé drawn by two black horses and he received us in his drawing room, in which was antique French furniture and oil paintings, old style. He was dressed in purple velvet; we were offered cigars and sandalwood oil splashed onto our handkerchiefs. After a little conversation he put on his embroidered cashmere, a magnificent shawl and showed us around his garden, his houses and the town which is more or less in ruin; they manufacture only cloth and soft furnishings. The only building of any consequence is the church beside which is the girls’ convent and a little further the hospital. The promenade along the river is pretty, the opposite bank is planted with trees and one can see the river for quite a long way in either direction. We saw many young girls being brought up by the sisters. They gave us dinner at the hotel where, being Hindu, they did not join us. The country leaving Calcutta is quite dry after the grain harvest, they make a lot of bricks, there are coconut plantations and the betel plants are covered because of the sunshine, then there is rice, sugarcane and other things. The population of Chandernagore has declined from 80,000 to 20,000, the white French population is practically nil. Returning at 9pm. we went to have a drink at The Wellington Bar and finally got in fairly late at night.

On Monday we went to some photographer’s shops where we saw some good examples depicting tiger hunts, very fine photo-engravings and paintings of rajahs and others, these studios are set up with considerable taste. We went to The British India Company[xxv] and to the shipping company and in the afternoon we took a carriage for a trip around the race course, and then went to Eden Garden. The race course or Maiden is enormous with trees in the distance, it is here that they do military exercises and have the horse races. All the highest society of Calcutta goes there in the afternoon; one sees some fine carriages, victories and coupes. Palaquins drawn by the finest horses, heaps of “baggies”, two wheeled carriages with a well turned out cob with close cut mane. The men are usually in a suit with a straw hat and drive themselves, or make their groom take the bridle when they are not there; everyone is very elegant and they behave impeccably. In Eden garden there is live music. The Viceroys music is played several days per week from a bandstand, the musicians are dressed in black with a red kepi and they play well. A lot of people come most in a suit with straw hat and leather gloves, the women are well dressed and one takes them on the arm to stroll round the bandstand.

On Tuesday we went to the zoological gardens where there are all sorts of animals,
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Zebras, monkeys from many different places, tigers, lions, tapirs, a huge aviary containing parrots from America, Australia and other countries. We didn’t find the snakes which were on the left of the entrance in glass cases. The walk to this place is very pretty, one walks along the river where there is a throng of ships from around the world, the docks, cart traffic with pairs of huge oxen with extensive horns and their languid eyes, the driver on his box who squeezes their tails to make them walk. We passed the big race course where Bengali soldiers in Sepoy dress carried out manoeuvres, lying flat on their stomachs brandishing their rifles, others in white coats with a red sash round the hips march in rank, all along the road we saw soldiers in black serge uniform with caps wrapped in black covers and a leather belt around the waist. On our way back we passed by the race course and the stands, then through a road lined with large trees, we stopped off at the “skating club” where we saw many young boys and girls glide on roller skates in a very large hall with parquet floor.

We were not very well lodged at the hotel and the foul air of the town made us ill, we hastened to get away.

Darjeeling, 9th February 1894: We left Sealdale Station the day before yesterday, the 7th. By the 4pm. Train the second class return ticket cost 33.03 rupees. On gets onto a very good train, second class is much the same as first; everything is well until one gets to Gange where one gets out at 8.30pm. to take a little steamer of about 1000 tons which takes passengers and goods across the river. It takes 20 minutes to do this trip. On the deck which has a large awning they serve a superb dinner and the boat moves not an inch. At the bow a man swings a plumb line and sings out the depth. To descend to the river bank there are two fine flares fuelled by a gasometer or evaporator giving out a bright light. On the other side one gets off onto a floating pontoon and the station is just ahead. After dinner on the deck Durfort suffered a dizzy spell, possibly because of the Calcutta sun and the food, he was laid out full length on his back; we bathed his forehead with a little water and with the aid of a little “eau de vie”, he became himself again. Instead of travelling in second class we had to take first class to Siliguri, where we arrived for breakfast at 8 o’clock. From that station we change train, one takes a very small little line with light open carriages, the rails are narrow and the wheels within the chassis, a real toy of a train, a little larger than an ordinary De Canville. At the front there is an enclosed carriage with a stretcher in the middle for invalids, then one or two closed carriages, the others being open. The line crosses a charming countryside covered in forest woodland and plantations of tea. The country becomes very pretty as soon as one leaves Siliguri; all along the route there are large trees covered in creepers, ravines and precipices everywhere and pretty little houses line the route, built on piles because of the lack of level ground. The railway line follows the road the whole way and crosses it many times; the train goes round in circles, the most acute curves, and from time to time it
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goes under a bridge, one goes full circle, and then goes over the same bridge in other places, the line which one sees below, being unable to complete the turn the line comes to an end and starts again by means of points onto another line. When one gets to a certain height there are large tea plantations criss-crossed by zig-zig roads or roads that follow the contours of the hill, the view of all these valleys is similar to that we saw in the mountains in Ceylon but is more grand and less green. The rocks on the mountains are flecked with mica and they twinkle brightly like gold. At every station one is assailed by children who come to beg. The people are very strong, all the men are large and robust with good calves, the average man is Chinese mixed with Indian, they have a mop of hair finishing in a ponytail for the men; the women wear a plat on either side of the head coming together in the centre of the back. They have a Chinese blouse with wide sleeves, a black cloth around the waist by way of apron, a trouser down to the shoes which are double thickness cloth with red on either side, the soles are made of rope and are very thick., they all have a knife or dagger, quite heavy, about an inch and a half thick, with curved end, carried in the belt. The jaw-line is wide and strong they have almond eyes. The coolies carry very heavy loads in willow baskets ending in a point carried by means of a strap tied around the forehead. The women are richly dressed, clean, with hair well presented, wide sleeves and a belt worn above the hips, in their ears they wear rings of different sizes of blue enamelled copper, round the neck they wear necklaces of the same material falling to the breast with a box in the centre. They are good looking, chubby and ruddy cheeked, they are a happy people but not loud. At Goom before arriving in Darjeeling we met some natives who were well set up. Their headdress is usually a hat made of fur which hangs down on each side; sometimes they will wear a grey felt hat, the sides of which are turned up. They ride small dumpy horses bred for the mountains. The cattle are very large with small horns and long hair. The people are either Hindu or Buddhist. This morning I saw a dance take place in front of the bazaar. They had fixed several poles in the ground and were flying flags with circles on them. The dancers had bands embroidered round their sleeves; they were richly dressed and danced with abandon, surrounded by people. The policemen were well kitted out in blue serge, a leather belt and a round serge hat complete with their badge of office. Many, to ward off the cold, wrap their calves in bands of cloth. The approach to Darjeeling is very pretty, the country itself is bare but the town is clean and well kept, it is positioned on a steep slope with hillocks around; the buildings are built of stone cut to resemble brick with well fitting joints, they are all covered in galvanised iron. They all have different windows with verandas enclosed by glass or projecting glassed bow windows. The best road, where all the shops and chemists are, goes past the Drum Druid Hotel where we settled in; it continues to end at a place which overlooks the opposite slope, in the middle of which is a bandstand. In front there is a hill on which there is a fine club and church, a road runs around it. Facing the hotel is a Jesuit college, red in the Gothic style; to one side is the convent. The bazaar is lower than the hotel but just in front,
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It is clean and well kept what a difference to the bazaars on the plain. We went there this morning and spent some time at the place of an Indian from Assam, a good looking fellow with pale skin a fine black beard and good teeth. He was dressed in a long puce coat with white baggy trousers brought together at the ankle. He presented to us wonderful woven carpets embroidered with silk of many colours depicting tigers and other animals, the Golden Temple of Lahore, the Taj, others embroidered with gold thread, cashmeres, carpets of all sorts from the Punjab, Cashmere and Assam. He also showed us furs of lynx, lovely long silky hair with a long tail, ————————————————-, interlaced fox tails. I bought a tiger skin that cost 150 rupees but he let me have for only 50. From there we crossed some well tended countryside planted with prime pines and other trees, upto the top of a hill that overlooks the railway station. From there we had a magnificent view of the opposite slope which is partially wooded to its summit. All of a sudden to our left, the clouds parted spectacularly and we distinctly saw a mountainous area covered in beautiful white snow, we could pick out several peaks. According to the hotelier it was not the area of eternal snows, these snows melt quickly, the eternal snows are much more spectacular, let us hope that tomorrow morning we will have the luck to have good weather, and that we will see them, we will then see Kintin-Junga the highest peak of the Himalayas, Everest being on the other side.

It seems that a man named Shaw recently climbed these mountains; he had been smitten with snow-bite and was in a bad way. The burns that one gets are, apparently, difficult to cure. The season in Darjeeling is from 15th April to 15th October, during the heat of summer, when hotels are full, and very expensive, on Bank Holidays on is obliged to sleep two to a bed. In the rainy season is poor weather for 19 days out of 20 and when the sun suddenly clears, one needs to wear a solar hat for fear of getting sun stroke. The town has a good drainage system, there are large channels covered with planks and gutters all over the place. At this time we have 50degrees Fahrenheit in the shade during the day. At the hotel we have a charming room with a bed having a metal spring mattress, a commode in a black, well varnished, wood, the teak commode that one sees everywhere, with copper sleeves and a good fire, to warm oneself, in the foyer; at night one is comfortable under three blankets but one has no wish to get up in the morning and the water is cold. They have from 60 to 70 people here during the season; the set-up and food is good, the manager friendly and approachable. Mr Lord the owner, with his brother, have several places round here. The hotel is below the road and is very well run.

Saturday 10th February: This morning the manager came to wake me at 5 in the morning to have a look at the snows. The sight before my eyes was superb, the whole mountain range from Kinchin-Junga and even some further away up to Na-tong, a huge curve was covered with snow right to the top, the peaks around Kin-Chin Junga were really beautiful, the snow brilliant white, with a few blue patches above the peaks, the slopes completely white and crevasses full of snow, all this seemed to follow a straight line with a backdrop of blue sky. I saw a glorious sun-rise over the mountains and went for a long walk. Returning we made our way to Observatory hill where the view is truly amazing. To get there one passes some lovely bungalows built within the pines, they have a wooden balcony all around.
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We spoke at length with a young man from the Vendé region of France, a compatriot of de Bagneau. We dined at Siliguri with our planter who treated us to a whisky and who saw us to our carriage. We slept in fits and starts with the heat, and the leopard skin which was not properly cured and smelt awful. Wre crossed the river on the steamer at 6 in the morning. The countryside after the river is very pretty; the village houses have thatched roofs build in the Hindu style. The area is planted with date palms for the manufacture of rum., one sees these majestic trees covered in red flowers, there are plantings of betel and some jungle scrub. At the Séaldal station after picking up some native and English passengers going into town, we took a palaquin to go to The Hotel de Paris where we were delighted to meet père Bonsard once again. On the day of our arrival, Monday, we ordered lunch for 11.30 so as to keep to the French time kept by these men, and left after to see the photographer in Sowringer Road; he has a good showroom and in his albums I had the pleasure of seeing a lot of the countryside from all parts of India; from north to south. A photograph of a public feast-day in Madras impressed me due to the number of people that had gathered together, The Golden Temple and other tombs in Lahore, the stone calf with natives on their knees before it, the quays of Madras with its ships and the sea breaking along the coast., the view of Pondicherry with the statue and columns, and many others beautifully composed and developed. There were some showing the natives: Tibetans, savages from the Anderman islands, completely without clothes bur with marks on their bodies, my friends bought about 50 views after which we went for our evening stroll. Yesterday we went to Harnac’s shop to have our measurement taken for suits to be made, the amount of traffic is huge, with busses crossing in all directions in front of the shops, and the goods vehicles[CCdeC11] . We also went to see the bankers. The National Bank of India is in the Greek style. All the employees are Bengali who are diligent in their work, perched on their high stools and dressed in their big white cloaks[CCdeC12] closed around the chest and slit at the side, their flowing blue langoti[CCdeC13] and white stockings. I was taken to an internal room and seated at a table where a baboo[CCdeC14] made me sign my cheques and counted out the money to me. The English directors and management keep to the rooms at the back. I also went for a little trip in a carriage around the European quarter, the surroundings are quite pleasant.

Today I had a long conversation with Bagneau on the subject of the Paris “Jockey Club” for which the entry fee is 1850 francs and where there is much opulence, the prizes given by the club from their revenue is from 3 to 400,000 Francs. Durfort is up to his neck in The Nobility, his father is a Viscount, he and his brothers Counts, his uncle a Duke, the younger a Marquis, through his mother’s line he is of Monmorency princely stock, he is a very distinguished man, holds himself well and has style, he has revenues of about 6,000 francs per annum from his properties and he spends his time hunting[CCdeC15] on his estates. His father has a 3000 hectare estate in Normandy, he[CCdeC16] is an officer of the Hussars, retired; he showed me an oil painting of the regiment ( the 6th ) hanging in the photographers’, where the colonel is perched on his horse, sabre in hand and helmet with feathers, or horses’ hair, flowing out behind. He is a devout catholic and much admires the Jesuits by whom he was brought up, he is 26 and

Bagneau 30 years old. The family is very numerous and stick together. Bagneau has a step mother whom he hates, his mother died at 27 years old when he was a small child.

Yesterday we went again to listen to the music; we went all along the Hougly to see the B.I. steamships and the docks. Getting there we passed the European volunteers mixing in with the local militia, in all different types of uniform; rifles with fixed bayonets, doing their training under the command of a military officer. Eden garden looks great with its many lamps everywhere, and the blue flames around the bandstand, the women are elegantly dressed and stroll with their husbands, we settled on a bench and listened to some good music, the Viceroy’s coach with his coachman and his four outriders front and back, all in red livery, bedecked with gold-braid, stopped in front of the bandstand near some fine teams of horses and carriages. An Indian woman driving two beautiful black horses with a large high carriage was much to be seen. Babous in their lace bonnets and thin clothing, in silk and linen driving in yellow carriages, perched on their seats, footmen dressed in yellow behind the men with straw hats and the beautiful animals which trotted with a high step, all this made a cheerful scene.

This afternoon, following the huge green lawn past the fort, we have been to the zoo. It was cool and we had a good walk, this time we saw the snakes in their glass cases, where they put straw and a woollen blanket in which they can curl up, we have seen an immense black python curled up in its cage, green snakes, grey, etc. of all sizes, alligators with pointed snouts basking on its tummy at the bottom of a pool made of porcelain tiles, a little crocodile with its jaws agape staying in this position for hours at a time, fallow deer, black ostridge emus, kangaroos, rhinoceros, hippopotamus with his thick armour, divided along his back. The cat enclosure—tigers, fisher-cats, leopards, lions, black and variegated panthers, all this is absolutely fascinating. We baited the tigers, their roars were terrifying and made ones hair stand on end. The monkeys are well housed in a building with iron compartments, we enjoyed ourselves by scratching their heads through the bars and playing tricks on them; One of them took half an anna from me and tried in vain to bite it making faces and grimacing, a poor brown monkey which had a growth on its face which implored us by opening its mouth and turning round to show us the spot from which it suffered greatly. The ornamental-bird house with the guttural cries was also interesting. Next to the tigers we saw some enormous monkeys with protruding and hideous snouts. The return was enchanting, one is surrounded by lamplight which shines everywhere through the trees, it is fine sight. Father Bansard entertained us before and after dinner discoursing on Calcutta, the troops in India, his wine cellar, etc He is a very amusing man.

The address of the planter from Sibiguru is F. D. Grant, Central Serai Tra. Cy. Sookna

Saturday 17th February /94. We are at anchor four hours from Calcutta waiting for the tide so that we can exit the Hoogly. I decided yesterday to go to Singapore where I

Sunday 4th February 1894 Singapore: This evening I went to dine with Mr Cox at number 2 Patterson Road. There is a fine house cool with a huge veranda on the first floor, the dining room is also on the first floor; he received me very well and served Champagne and an excellent meal. Their dining room as well as the living room are simply furnished and the doors tall and wide, his eldest daughter is very distinguished, a lovely brunette, his other three daughters are also charming, we spoke a little of Mauritius. There are three judges in Singapore and Penang. Their judgements are made on their own and appeals are made from time to time, Mr Cox and his brother-judge are going to Penang on 4th April to preside over the appeal court where they will be for about twelve days. A judge’s role is more tiring here; they do not have any holidays. As secretary he has Mr Rodesse, a Mauritian who came here with Mr Pellereau. He is part of, as Honorary Member, of all the clubs; The Singapore Cricket Club, The Yacht Club and The Racing Club etc. he is only active in The Singapore Club, which is a fine club between the buildings of The Post Office and the Harbour Master.

Monday 5th March 1894. I am aboard the “Rohila” for the last 51/2 days on route for Hong Kong. Not having been to Batavia I decided to go to Hong king. I had lunch with Captain Crawford, who took me for a tour of the port in his little steam boat; after having paid my bill at Hotel Europe at Rs4 for five days, I went to rejoin my amiable Captain on the wharf, his “tag” is very pleasant, it is all of teak, very long with a deck all round, cushions at the front. We went to a small island in front of the port and quite close to |the P & O Wharf. He showed me his marine operations, where he was in the process of installing a generator. He has a small workshop with turning machines, steam hammers etc. and a specialist-area, and three creole workmen from Mauritius, they were in course of preparing to set up asbestos and cement insulation against the heat between the generator and wood . The other workmen were Malay and Chinese.

Saturday 10th March 1894. We have had a very pleasant trip since our departure from Singapore. The sea has been calm and apart from some heat during the first few days the weather has been superb. From six in the evening on Monday to twelve midday Tuesday we made 202 knots, 280 knots on Wednesday, 286 Thursday, 299 Friday; today it is rainy and the sea choppy, the ship ploughing into the water throws up an enormous spray right up to the bridge. The “Rohills” is a lovely ship; it is very long and fairly narrow. The upper deck extends almost the whole length of the ship, and one can take quite a long walk. First class is spacious and is full of people. Lord Sutherland and his wife are passengers going to Hong Kong, there are many people and they are all very correct in their behaviour. A young girl with fresh red cheeks, a little waist well pulled in, a drille skirt with pockets, a little straw hat perched on top of her hair often walks one way and then the other past the second class passengers. The first class passengers often come to our side because one feels the ships movement much less here. One passes the time by playing deck quoits, with “buckets”, with lines or circles marked out in chalk. In second class we have a missionary who is travelling from Assam with his wife, his child and their parents: he is an American Methodist and has done a lot of proselytising there;
where he had established himself; he was the first to colonise Assam and to learn the language of the country. He is passing through China to meet his co-missionaries before returning to America.

The other passengers in second class are Miss Margaret Cuthbertson who is joining her fiancé who works in a marine organisation in Shan-Haî, her brother accompanied her from Scotland to London where he left her on the “Austalasia” and she changed ships in Colombo, she is a Scot, blond, with a strong accent, a good and brave girl, blond with red cheeks, she wears a large Scottish overcoat and a tweed clock over that. Catchpole is a successful comic, who passes the time sneezing just to frighten people and saying “Horrible your Worship” is in the same cabin as I; he has a large, clean shaven, jovial face and a blue serge suit with wide collar; he spends his days sleeping. Southwood and Smith, two other Englishmen are in the cabin opposite, they are both clean shaven. Cairncross, another Scot with a beard and an old man with a red face; they are both in the same cabin; they come from England where they have been on holiday. Hedrick, a Scot whose destination is Hong Kong where he hopes to get employment as an engineer, he sits opposite me at table. The days are spent eating in the small second class room where we are a bit crowded, reading and playing “quoits” on deck. A young boy travelling in first gives joy to everyone; he is as happy as a chaffinch and gambols everywhere, he plays a little with us. First Class is large and very long, we walk the whole length. The second class servants are Portuguese from Goa, the chief steward is English as are the stewardesses. The officers and captain are not communicative, they only frequent the first class, we see them do their watch on the poop deck above us and when they take the forward watch. We have several Chinamen as travelling companions; they are with their wives and children. They are very quiet and not at all disagreeable. Their wives are very happy and have fun with their little rascals who have shaven heads, woollen bonnets in all colours, and gaudy clothing with braces. During the voyage these Chinese are dressed in white, a very voluminous costume, and on the ship’s arrival they put on a tight trouser attached to the stocking and without depth over their breeches, then large breeches hanging behind the head and tied around the neck. The food in second class is simple and less tiring than that of the first class, we breakfast at half past eight, lunch at one thirty and high tea at six thirty, a cup of tea and a biscuit at four and some cheese at nine. There are quite a few passengers in stowage, they are all in together pell-mell with their entire luggage on the deck below and cook their own meals on deck. On approaching Hong Kong today, we have seen several Chinese junks in the open sea, there are always two of them together, they are very large boats with square sails with a high stern containing a cabin in which the whole family lives, they all fish and dry their fish before entering port.

Monday 12th March 1894. Hong Kong: The port is very pretty, the town is on a hill or rather several hills which make up an island. The town itself is on the plateau below, it is quite large and the buildings very high and the streets narrow, but very clean. The buildings are in brick covered in tiles, very tall,
with balconies and columns on the ground floor level as well as the first floor level, The Hong Kong Hotel has seven floors and is an the port opposite the “ferry-boat wharf”: from afar the town appears as a huge pigeon loft with its buildings of many floors with balconies and colonnades. Yesterday I went down with Miss Maggy Cuthbertson with whom I walked to the P & O office where she collected a telegram from her fiancé. Afterwards we went together to the church at 11 o’clock, then we climbed the hill a little near the protestant church, where the path rises snake-like and is bordered by ferns of all sorts, lovely tree-ferns, philodendrons, ferns with red flowers as we have near the river at Ménil, polipotes, &c., it is delightful. Climbing opposite the “Clock-Tower”, we met flower sellers who assailed us with T roses in bud and all sorts of other flowers, we had some perfumed narine. I offered Miss Margaret a bunch of rose buds and after having eaten at the hotel we went in a little funicular railway to the top of the Peak. This little railway comes and goes every quarter of an hour, it operates via a chain which goes over rollers, and it proceeds sometimes almost perpendicularly, the trees and the houses seem to be very odd as one gets higher., the trees are also climbing and the houses cling to their perches. The summit is completely denuded of vegetation. To the right are the signal mast and a little observatory. The stations are small and set on the incline. One alights close to the Peak Hotel, to the left, and going up one gets to The Mount Road Hotel which is very big and at the very top. From that height the town seems like a mass of small, well cut, squares. Opposite, on hard ground, there is a whole town and wharfs where P&O and other steamers moor up to the quays. The harbour is immense and scattered with ships, junks, and little “tugs” which plough the waters in every way; there are also lots of buoys, the harbour takes up all the space between the island and the mainland and it is very long. Opposite the terrain is mountainous, and the ridges wish descend to the sea are red and bare. I have just come back at 3.15pm from a long trip out of town. I followed the row of bungalows along the mountain for more than two miles. The roads are surfaced and clean, all along the borders are ferns and shrubs, on the balconies above ground floor and on the steps are pots with flowers of all sorts, shrubs in flower and scented, gracious chalets with drains made with a grey clay looking like bamboo, the whole mountain is planted up to a certain height with Chinese pines, the air is pure and fresh, the walk delightful, behind St Jon’s Church there are the barracks, as I was passing the men were practising rifle drill. A little above the church is the Railway’s Victoria Terminus. At the end of the trip and overlooking some lovely chalets which had tennis courts, I stopped, and sitting on a bench, I had a lovely view of the sea and the bottom of town. All was quiet, clean, cheerful and sunny, and the harbour appeared as if it were a lake, criss-crossed by small steam boats. It is completely different from the view one gets from the Peak: on the opposite side, where there is a group of little islands, disappearing into the distance.

The Rohilla left at 4 o’clock this afternoon for Shang-Hai, with the majority of passengers; I went aboard to wish my companions God Speed and after having left my chaise-longue at the “godown” I went to do a tour of the Commercial
district in a bay the other side of the landing stage. There is a factory there worked by “pig-tails, it is a Chinese village where there are marine workshops. Coming away from the quay one crosses the barracks which are quite extensive. Kowloon Hotel where there are azaleas and other flowers in pots, magnificent Chinese carnations; the way is long and pretty all along the coast. The town is entirely Chinese, large multi-storied houses with writing of all sorts, flowers , orange trees, in pots at the window, bearing fruit.

Tuesday 20th March 1894. I saw everything of interest in Hong Kong, the day after the departure of The Rohilla Mr Edward Ackroyd, Hong Kong’s Second Judge and Dr John Bell came to see me at the hotel (Windsor Hotel), the next day I went to see Mr Ackroyd in his office, he has done all he can to make my stay here agreeable. He had enrolled me into The Club where one can read every newspaper going, and where there is a magnificent library on the upper floor. We had lunch together at one o’clock; The Club is very fine; it is opposite the Courts of Justice, in Queen’s Road.
Friday 23rd March 1894. On board the “Sydney, a mail boat, I left Hong Kong on the 21st at midday after a stay of nine days, I spent the whole time at the Windsor Hotel, on the corner of Queen’s Road and Ice House Street. I dined once at Mr Ackroyd’s where I met the young Edwards, a young naval officer who was born in Mauritius. Twice I had dinner at John Bell’s home, up the hill, in a house behind the “Naval Hospital”, he lives with two friends, Army Officers, in a suite of rooms in a large block. The rooms are large and comfortable but they are at the very top of the hill and one has quite a long climb to get there.. Mr Ackroyd lives with his wife at 2, Windsor Terrace. Bell’s office is in the Praya which is the road facing the landing stage. Saturday 16th, I left at eight in the morning on board the Powan for Canton. At Canton I embarked at Macao Dock. The Powan is a river boat with large cabins on deck, a good dining room in the middle and a heaps of space for the passengers between-decks, this boat is used mainly to take passengers from Hong Kong to Canton three or four times a week, it can carry up to 1500 passengers at a time; it also takes fresh fish to Canton, this boat is very convenient because of its size and the space it has to move around in, it is a river boat which does not draw enough water to stay at sea. We took nine hours for the crossing and arrived at 5pm Saturday, we left again at 10am Monday, which made it possible to see the town during the whole of Sunday. Canton is the commercial city of China. There is a lot of industry and many traders of all sorts. The sights from Hong Kong are quite interesting.. One sees many islands of all sizes during the crossing. Those at the mouth of the river have defensive cannon, the crest of the mountains are planted with a line of trees, the hill bare, and one sees craters in the mountain where cannon can be hidden. These forts are under the command of the mandarins. The sea is scattered with boats and junks of all sorts, with their large high sterns, containing the living quarters of the boatman and his family; the sail is large and square and there is a long pendant at the mast-head. One meets all sizes in the river as well as at open sea; there boats are made completely of wood and varnished. The riverside is flat-land, with mountains in the distance. All along there are rice-fields. Sometimes the river divides and one is surprised to see junks, as if they were sailing on land. One also occasionally sees the odd steamer, of quite small tonnage, descending the river, also Chinese river-boats but quite small ones. At the entrance of Canton one sees almost exclusively large boat-houses, painted in all colours, they are against the shore and rarely move. The small boats are usually covered with three roofs in willow-cane one above the other finishing in a point: they are steered by a long oar at the stern, the end of which is attached to the bottom of the boat by a rope, very small children and women steer these boats; as these people live and die on their boat, the children are always aboard, even when very small. Their mother restrains them from the back with brightly coloured braces, or with a cord fixed to the top of their bedding. In the evening all these little boats come into a semi-circle near to the landing stage where they light their fires and cook the evening meal; there are traders going hither and thither with ready prepared meals, crying out all the time advertising their wares while steering their boats. The women specially have a rhythmic dancing movement on the platform from which they steer the boat. The customs boat with the yellow flag depicting a dragon which is about to swallow the sun, their Chinese crew dressed as policemen playing a card game with cards marked as dominoes go up and down the river, sometimes with a European head.
The trip from Canton costs five dollars and as much for the return; in total it covers 90 miles. We go through Wampou before arriving at our destination. This town is small; there are only a few Chinese boats, some tombs on the hill, a customs house and a few buildings. What strikes you on the approach to Canton is the Roman Catholic Church which is superb with two huge bell towers and enormous size. It was built at great expense by a bishop during the reign of Napoleon III; the number of Christians in Canton is too small for such a large church. In the town and on the approaches there are large pagodas which go straight up with many stories, they are seen from far-off. One sees building after building in the town, all square and built of stone; they are secure warehouses where goods are held in transit or kept under guard. They are seven or eight stories high and fireproof, there are all sorts of merchandise stored there. The town has a circumference of six miles and the shops and houses although very numerous have no architectural merit. The colour of the river at its mouth is very dark and gets more yellow as one approaches Canton. The town is dark and the sky around is very grey. The town extends further on the left bank; that is where the English and French quarters are that were ceded after the 1857 war, where both allied countries took a strong interest in this town.
On the evening of our arrival I took a guide who took me across several roads. I saw Chinese jewellery being made on which were stuck or encrusted pieces of blue feather coming from parrots, this work is done with the aid of a small stick pointed at both ends with which they take each small piece of feather which is placed on the jewel. In another workshop they were painting on rice-paper, painting of all sorts. The town roads are narrow and the houses tall, the pavements are wide, the shop-fronts are festooned with painted boards, narrow, covered in Chinese writing. The shops are perfectly stocked with merchandise of all sorts, huge sacks of rice and other grain open and exposed for sale. Beautiful decorated counters sculpted with representations of trees and birds, large pieces of roast pork, hams, ducks thighs and roast ducks, dried rats, vegetables and pieces of sugar-cane, rotary grill on which all sorts of foods are cooked, which they sell to passers-by by the bowl; fried foods and roasted nuts, from all this rises a smell which is not unpleasant in some places.
Nuwara Eliya, Ceylon, 4th April 1894. I left Hong Kong on 21st March at midday on board the Mail Boat “Sydney”, at the same time as the “Empress of Japan” left for Japan with Mr Robinson, the present Governor and the missionaries from the “Rochilla”. After settling my account with the old German, manager of the hotel, I took a “sampan” to go aboard. I had left my arm-chair at the dock in Kowloon and took another sailing “sampan” to go and fetch it; on its return the mast got caught up with the anchor-chain and broke at deck-height, which really frightened the small Chinamen on board. I bought my ticket at 10am on the day of mail boat’s departure, and had the good fortune to have a good four berth cabin to myself, the other three bunks were reserved from Singapore only. This vas lucky as other passengers from Saigon to Singapore had to make do as they could.
The Sydney is a lovely ship with a good first class saloon and lots of space, but the deck was more or less blocked with arm chairs and cane furniture of all sorts, which got in the way. The captain was hardly to be seen, he is a very pleasant man who stayed most of the time lying out on his lounger near his cabin. The Doctor is very good on the piano and played for us every evening. We have on board, as passengers, some English, French and some Spanish. I took passage in second and found myself very well served., I was at the end of a table and had opposite me Mr Doulin, a young mechanic off a boat from Hong Kong returning to France, he was not very aristocratic, I had at my side the wife of an inspector of the French Police, a good large brunette, who went to sit at the other end of the table near the officer who sat at the head of the table with the arrivals from Saigon. I did not lose out by her move as I now had as neighbour a very pleasant Breton, Mr Vaissier, a good companion, who spoke much of Cochin China where he had lived for five years. We were therefore a convivial group of men and there was quite a lot of laughter.
———-ooooooooooooooooooooo———–

Page 35[i] He starts in Ceylon (nowadays Sri-Lanka) He refers to India or The Indies which in those days covered the whole Indian sub-continent. Partition ie the separation of Pakistan and Bangladesh from India took place after the Second World War. I have translated “The Indies” as “India” throughout

[ii] Present day Mombai

[iii] Remember that Edgar had servants himself, he well knew their duties. Slavery was abolished in Mauritius about 100 years earlier

[iv] Blue ,white and red, the Revolutionary colours of France

[v] At this time men probably wore nightshirts in bed; pyjamas were probably not well known

[vi] No word about Christmas or New Year which is much celebrated by the Scots

[vii]Should be “Syne” meaning———

[viii] “Messageries” meaning the ship that carries –usually the post, and hence a regular scheduled service

[ix] “English” is used but “British” is more appropriate:The Scots and Irish had a large part in this history

[x] Maybe a pigmy stag?

[xi] This could be an ornamental pond, it is not clear if the hollow has water in it.

[xii] There is blank here

[xiii] Sand was used to dry ink after writing

[xiv] Probably Asquith

[xv] Which war?

[xvi] Surely here is meant Queen Victoria

[xvii] Muslims do not allow any effigy, so the chiselling will be stylised Arabic script from the Koran

[xviii] One from the French department of Bretagne which clearly Mr Lee was not. What is meant is a “salt of the earth” character.

[xix] Hindus believe in fate and have little fear of death.

[xx] Possibly a batman

[xxi] Meaning I think a full size effigy of a man

[xxii] The East India Company was the British trading company, the Compagnie des Indes was the equivalent French company. There was bitter competition between the two and the history of India was largely determined by these companies and their trade

[xxiii] This would be a powerful symbol of British supremacy. The Lion is the symbol of The British Sovereign and the globe the world

[xxiv] A well known Mauritian name

[xxv] [xxv] The original says “Bsh. India Cy”.

[CCdeC1]Shall we just say “native dress” or is there an equivalent wird?

[CCdeC2]Moubray is a relative of the de Chazal family. Which one is he can anyone help

[CCdeC3]I am not sure, perhaps the guns bore down on them from some distance

[CCdeC4]I an not sure of this as it comes on the corner of the page and I cannot read the original

[CCdeC5]A type of stone?

[CCdeC6]Pot-belly?

[CCdeC7]Is this The ganga or The Ganges?

[CCdeC8]Not in my dictionary, a flare perhaps?

[CCdeC9]On page one or two I thought this was a wood of sorts. In this context it appears to be a dhoti. I suggest clothes

[CCdeC10]Strictly an awning, can one say a shutter in this context? Or railing?

[CCdeC11]Equipages

[CCdeC12]Cabaille

[CCdeC13]trouser ;single sheet of cloth drawn through the legs

[CCdeC14]Indian clerk

[CCdeC15]Old French “courre” probably hunting with dogs.

[CCdeC16]Father or son?

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